Comment modéliser les systèmes aquifères au sein du cycle hydrologique ? : une approche « multi-observables » à différentes échelles

Abstract : Groundwater systems (GW) constitute an important part of the hydrological cycle. GW transfer water infiltrated through soils on variable distances. After a characteristic time ranging from the month to thousand of years, GW reach the surface supporting rivers and evapotranspiration. Thus, they are a major resource for human and ecosystems. PredictingGWresponse to human and climate pressures is limited by (1) the scarcity of direct information on the highly heterogeneous geological media (2) the complexity of surface-depth exchanges. So, it seems necessary to develop models representing at best the processes at different spatiotemporal scales. To address this issue, we study the informative content of different observation types (piezometry, streamflow, surface deformation. . . ) to assess how they can improve models parametrization. Our work is based on GW modeling of the Ploemeur site (local scale) and of the Rhine basin (continental scale). For both approaches, simple models are developed, using analytical or numerical solutions. Also, the ModFlow model was coupled to an hydrological model. At small scale, results show the interest of temporal and multidisciplinary data to better constrain processes. At large scale, the developed model, as well as observations, allows to precise the role ofGWfor water availability on surface. Both approaches highlight a flows control at different scales by topography, geology and heterogeneity.
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Luca Guillaumot. Comment modéliser les systèmes aquifères au sein du cycle hydrologique ? : une approche « multi-observables » à différentes échelles. Sciences de la Terre. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B069⟩. ⟨tel-02111617⟩

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