Rôle de la kinésine-1 dans le sécrétions régulées des celulles immunitaires

Abstract : Most of immune cells are secretory cells capable of releasing immunomodulatory molecules in response to various stimuli. This regulated secretion, which allows the orchestration of the immune and inflammatory responses, is ensured by the lysosome-related organelles (LRO) which will contain the molecules necessary for the functionality of the immune cells. For example we found the lytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which allow their lytic functions or the secretory granules of mast cells which contain the inflammatory mediators. The transport and exocytosis of LRO involves a common and conserved machinery. This is particularly the case of the small GTPase Rab27 which plays a central role in the transport and secretion of these LRO. Previous studies carried out in our laboratory have highlighted the involvement of the molecular complex Rab27a / Slp3 / kinesin-1 in the terminal transport of lytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in humans. In addition, a murine model in which the heavy chain of kinesin-1 is specifically invalidated in immune cells has been generated. The objective of my thesis was first to characterize the phenotype of this murine model deficient for kinesin-1, then to analyze more precisely the impact of kinesin-1 absence on the cytotoxic T lymphocyte and mast cell functionality. In a first step, we have been able to demonstrate that mice deficient for kinesin-1 have a phenotype comparable to the control mice in a basal state. We have then shown that the absence of kinesin-1 in murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes does not induce defects in activation and in lytic granules’ secretion in vitro. However, the behavior of the lytic granules at the immunological synapse seems abnormal. Nevertheless, after an infection essay with LCMV, which revealed no differences between control and kinesine-1-deficient mice, we conclude that compensatory mechanisms may complement the absence of kinesin-1 in mice. Finally, functional studies carried out on murine mast cells have enabled us to demonstrate the involvement of kinesin-1 in the mechanism of granules’ transport. Indeed, the absence of kinesin-1 leads to degranulation defects in vitro and also in vivo (mice were less sensitive to anaphylactic shocks). On the other hand, the absence of kinesin-1 does not affect the activation and cytokines secretion capacities of mast cells. Finally, we were able to characterize the molecular complex Rab27b / Slp3 / kinesin-1 involved in mastocytic granules’ transport and found that this complex formation was dependent on the PI3K-related activation pathway (Phospatidylinositol 3-kinase). This work allows us to introduce new elements for the mechanisms governing the secretion of mast cell granules and thus opens new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of type I hypersensitivity (IgE dependent).
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Isabelle Munoz. Rôle de la kinésine-1 dans le sécrétions régulées des celulles immunitaires. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB014⟩. ⟨tel-02110828⟩

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