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Modulation pharmacologique du raisonnement et de la prise de décision : apports pour la psychiatrie

Abstract : Successful new drug development has declined in psychiatry in the last decades. This is in part the resut of a high failure rate in translating positive preclinical efficacy results to positive clinical trials. Limitations in the validity of animal models and shortcomings in the usefullnes of the current categorical diagnostic system. Cognitive neurosciences and particularly reinforcement learning and its computational analysis might provide biomarkers required to develop new ways of classifying mental disorders on the basis of both observable behaviour and neurobiological measues. Used in conjunction with pharmacological challenges, it may bring new insights into the physiopahtology and brain mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. It may also help design new animal models with imporved predictive validity for the develoment of medications relying on innovative mechanisms of action. We illustrate the use of reinforcement learning and pharmacological challenge in two experimental studies. In the first experiment, we administered a reinforcement learning task that involves both direct learning from obtained outcomes and indirect learning from forgone outcomes to two groups of Gilles de la Tourette patients, one receiving aripiprazole, one unmedicated and to a group of healty subjects. In the second experiment, we administered two probabilistic stimulus selection learning tasks (one simple, one with occasional reversals) to healthy subjects randomly and blindly allocated to either escitalopram, a typical serotonin reuptake inhibitor, agomelatine, an antidepressant with a different mechanism of action, or placebo. The experiment compard the effect of these two classes of antidepressants to placebo after both short term (3 days) and long term (8 weeks) treatment. These experiments bring insights into the understanding of the clinical condition studied, and the effects of the drugs tested. Implications of this approach for the translational approach to drug development is discussed.
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Alexandre Salvador. Modulation pharmacologique du raisonnement et de la prise de décision : apports pour la psychiatrie. Psychiatrie et santé mentale. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB007⟩. ⟨tel-02109169⟩

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