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Cryoconservation de cellules spermatiques et de cellules souches pluripotentes de mammifères dans un milieu synthétique et chimiquement défini

Abstract : Nowadays, reproductive (embryos, sperm, oocytes) and somatic (fibroblasts and pluripotent stem cells) resources are cryopreserved in media containing animal-derived products (serum, egg yolk, milk). Using these products raises sanitary (risk of contamination) as well as scientific concerns (reproducibility limits due to the variability of their composition). This study aims to replace animal derived-product in assessing the effect of a synthetic and chemically defined medium, STEMALPHA.CRY03® (Stem Alpha, France), on the cryopreservation of ovine and bovine sperm, and on rabbit pluripotent stem cells. First, a physical approach permitted to study the cooling rates and the characterization of thermodynamic properties of the freezing media. The differential scanning calorimetry allowed us to define their phase transition temperatures (crystallization temperature, melting temperature and enthalpy variation of crystallization, proportional to the amount of crystallized ice). Second, a biological approach was used for the cryopreservation of bovine and ovine sperm, as well as rabbit pluripotent stem cells. Flow cytometry and computer- assisted sperm analyses showed that STEMALPHA.CRY03® impaired bovine sperm, compared to a medium containing animal derived-product. These last results were confirmed in ovine species. Nevertheless, artificial insemination by laparoscopy (n = 270 ewes) counteracts this impairment and allowed an average pregnancy rate of 70 %. Moreover, without any additive in the freezing medium, a similar pregnancy rate was obtained. The study of pluripotent gene expression profile, and analyses of viability and growth rates for the cryopreservation of rabbit pluripotent stem cells confirmed that synthetic media, STEMALPHA.CRY03® (with 4, 5 or 10 % of cryoprotectant) and CryoStor® CS10 (containing 10 % of cryoprotectant) were more efficient than serum-based media. We demonstrate that it is possible to cryopreserve sperm cells and pluripotent stem cells in synthetic and chemically defined media. 0ur results confirmed the interest of a standardized approach for cryopreservation procedures of genetic resources in mammals. This work meets the needs of cryobanking activities (quality policy) and of the regulation development within the framework of international trade
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 23, 2019 - 6:17:06 PM
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Lucie Gavin-Plagne. Cryoconservation de cellules spermatiques et de cellules souches pluripotentes de mammifères dans un milieu synthétique et chimiquement défini. Biologie de la reproduction. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1197⟩. ⟨tel-02107702⟩

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