Ontologie naturalisée et ingénierie des connaissances

Abstract : «What do I need to know about something to know it ?». It is no wonder that such a general, hard to grasp and riddle-like question remained the exclusive domain of a single discipline for centuries : Philosophy. In this context, the distinction of the primitive components of reality – the so called "world’s furniture" – and their relations is called an Ontology. This book investigates the emergence of similar questions in two different though related fields, namely : Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering. We show here that the way these disciplines apply an ontological methodology to either cognition or knowledge representation is not a mere analogy but raises a bunch of relevant questions and challenges from both an applied and a speculative point of view. More specifically, we suggest that some of the technical answers to the issues addressed by Big Data invite us to revisit many traditional philosophical positions concerning the role of language or common sense reasoning in the thought or the existence of mind-independent structure in reality.
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David Zarebski. Ontologie naturalisée et ingénierie des connaissances. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H232⟩. ⟨tel-02103695⟩

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