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Les constructions exceptives du français et de l’arabe : syntaxe et interface sémantique-syntaxe

Abstract : This research takes an interest the syntax of exceptive constructions (ECs) and its correspondence with semantic within two languages: French and Arabic. Based on a corpus of authentic examples, we suggest a classification of ECs into two major categories with dissimilar syntactic behaviors: the paradigmatic-ECs, which are syntactically related to coordination and the hypotactic-ECs, which are contrarily related to subordination. We will focus our analysis on the markers sauf, excepté, hormis, etc. and analyze them as particular case of paradigmatic lists/piles, in which two segments of the utterance pile up on the same syntactic position and whose most famous case is coordination. This analysis is different from the one generally associated with these markers in French grammars and dictionaries which consider them as prepositions. For Arabic, we propose a tripartite classification of ECs that considers the specificities of Arabic relative to French. In addition to the paradigmatic-ECs and the hypotactic-ECs, we identify, in Arabic, a third class, the paratactic-ECs, which are constructions with a verbal head that belong to the parataxis, a process particularly developed in Arabic. Our analyzes lead us to consider the markers ʾillā, ġayr and siwā in Arabic as coordinating conjunctions. These items, like their French counterparts, relate two elements where X on the right of the marker and Y on the left form paradigmatic lists/piles, in the sense that they fulfill the same syntactic function in the utterance. We analyze the lexical items ʿadā (mā-ʿadā), ẖalā (mā-ẖalā), ḥāšā (mā-ḥāšā) as verbs. These verbs introduce a clause that maintains a parataxic relation with the preceding clause. Finally, we consider the items bistiṯnā'i and biẖilāfi as prepositive phrases introducing a sequence that maintains a subordinate relationship with the main clause.
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Mohamed Galal Abdel Wahab Moustafa. Les constructions exceptives du français et de l’arabe : syntaxe et interface sémantique-syntaxe. Linguistique. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA100001⟩. ⟨tel-02102941⟩

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