Conception d’environnement instrumenté pour la veille à la personne

Abstract : Instrumentation enables our environment, house or building, to get smart through self-adjustment to our lifestyles and through assistance of our daily-life. A smart environment is sensitive and responsive to our activities, in order to improve our quality of life. Reliability of activities' identification is absolutely necessary to such ambient intelligence: it depends directly on sensors' positioning within the environment. This fundamental issue of sensor placement is hardly considered by marketed ambient systems or even into the literature. Yet, it is the main source of ambient systems' malfunctions and failures, because a bad activity recognition leads to a bad delivered assistance. Sensor placement is about choosing and positioning relevant sensors for a reliable identification of activities. In this thesis, we develop and detail a sensor placement methodology driven by identifiability of activities of interest. We quantify it by looking at two different evaluations: coverage of interests and uncertainty of measures. First, we present an activity model that decomposes each activity into characterised actions to be technology-free (either knowledge or data driven one). We depict actions and sensors by a set theoretic model, enabling to fuse homogeneous informations of heterogeneous sensors. We then evaluate each action of interest's identifiability regarding placed sensors, through notions of precision (identification's performance) and sensitivity (action's coverage). Our sensor placement algorithm use Pareto-optimality to offer a wide range of relevant solution-placements, for these multiple identifiabilities to maximise. We showcase our methodology and our evaluation through solving a problem featuring motion and binary sensors, by optimally choosing for each action the characteristic to cover. Finally, we look into optimal design of experiments by analysing the information matrix to quantify how sources of uncertainties influence the identification of an action's characteristic. We depict continuous sensors and the characterised action by an analytical model, and we show that some uncertainties should be considered and included in a new information matrix. We then apply directly observability indexes to evaluate identifiability of a characterised action (uncertainty of identification), and compare our new information matrix to the classical one. We showcase our alternate evaluation through solving a sensor placement problem featuring angular sensors. We discuss both covered evaluations and their complementarity towards the design of instrumented environment for human monitoring.
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Aurélien Massein. Conception d’environnement instrumenté pour la veille à la personne. Vision par ordinateur et reconnaissance de formes [cs.CV]. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4096⟩. ⟨tel-02102799⟩

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