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Impact de la phosphorylation de FXR par la PKA sur son activité transcriptionnelle et sur la régulation de la néoglucogenèse hépatique

Abstract : Glucose homeostasis is maintained during normal fasting through a complex regulatory network controlled mainly by glucagon, a pancreatic hormone. Opposing the effects of insulin, it orchestrates the glucose use, storage and synthesis by the liver, the main organ that produces glucose during fasting. The latter is carried out first by the degradation of glycogen or glycogenolysis and then by de novo glucose synthesis or gluconeogenesis. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is controlled by modulation of various key enzymes activity and/or expression according to allosteric or transcriptional mechanisms.Multiple transcription factors are involved in the transcriptional regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR is expressed in the liver and in several organs involved in glucose homeostasis. FXR regulates many essential liver functions, including controlling bile acid and lipid metabolism. The exact role of FXR on gluconeogenesis is still debated. The objective of this work was therefore to study the role of FXR in the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis under experimental conditions reflecting certain aspects of fasting. We demonstrated that FXR, in the presence of glucagon, positively regulated gluconeogenesis according to two mechanisms.The first mechanism involves phosphorylation of FXR by PKA, a glucagon-activated kinase. This FXR post-translational modification allows synergistic induction of key gluconeogenic enzymes expression by FXR and the CREB transcription factor. This mechanism identification constitutes the major part of the work presented in this thesis. These were integrated with work previously conducted in the laboratory that allowed us to identify an additional mechanism for regulating gluconeogenesis. The FXR direct interaction with the transcription factor FOXA2, itself activated by glucagon, inhibits the ability of FXR to induce the expression of SHP, a gluconeogenesis inhibitory nuclear receptor.This work has therefore identified for the first time that hepatic gluconeogenesis is positively regulated by FXR in the glucagon signalling pathway. For this, FXR integrates the "glucagon" signal by two distinct mechanisms: via post-translational modification, its phosphorylation by PKA on S325 and S357 serines and via protein-protein interaction with FOXA2.
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Maheul Ploton. Impact de la phosphorylation de FXR par la PKA sur son activité transcriptionnelle et sur la régulation de la néoglucogenèse hépatique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S032⟩. ⟨tel-02102715⟩

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