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Host-parasite interactions of coral reef fish

Abstract : Fish parasites are an important part of ecosystems, however, in certain cases such as in aquaculture they can cause severe disease outbreaks. In this thesis I have studied host-parasite interactions in coral reef fishes, both in the natural and culture environments. I have studied the distribution of 13 dactylogyrid species from 34 butterflyfishes in the Indo West-Pacific. Composition of dactylogyrid communities was host specific and together with the biogeography results, where a turnover in the main Haliotrema species was observed, suggest that parasite specificity might result from host-parasite coevolution derived from past biogeographical episodes. Only one butterflyfish species, Chaetodon lunulatus, was never found parasitized by gill monogeneans. I have studied the butterflyfish mucus, which is the first barrier against pathogens, to investigate the C. lunulatus factors that might be related to the monogenean absence. Butterflyfish gill microbiome and metabolome revealed a high diversity. C. lunulatus presented a significantly higher abundance of Fusobacteria which was correlated to a higher expression of potentially derived β-hemoglobin peptides. Synthesis and evaluation of the peptide antiparasitic activities are being performed in the laboratory. I have also studied the use of medicinal plants as an alternative to chemotherapy in fish aquaculture. I investigated the antibacterial and immunostimulant activities of several local Polynesian plants and algae, and I found that Asparagopsis taxiformis displayed a potent antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi and Tenacibaculum maritmum and increased expression of two immune-related genes in Platax orbicularis.
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Miriam Reverter. Host-parasite interactions of coral reef fish. Parasitology. École pratique des hautes études - EPHE PARIS, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016EPHE3060⟩. ⟨tel-02102315⟩

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