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Variations de croissance et capacité d’adaptation des populations marginales fragmentées d’arbres des zones boréo-montagnardes, en réponse aux changements climatiques

Abstract : This thesis aims to assess the fate of marginal populations, in the context of climate change, for boreo-mountain tree species. The dendroclimatic response and the genetic structure of the species are jointly analyzed on gradients including both the continuous and the marginal distribution zones. Two biological models have been chosen for this research, white cedar at its northern limit (boreal forest) and stone pine at its western limit (temperate mountain forest). The following hypotheses were tested: global warming during the twentieth century has led to increased growth; growth variability is related to the genetic structure at the intra- and inter-population levels. A decline in cedar growth was observed after 1980 in marginal zone, which could be linked to drought constraints on growth. For both species, climate-growth relationships were essentially modulated by the amount of precipitation, but also by soil and tree-size variables. The existence of a significant link between genetic structure and some climatic variables still leaves some hope for a genetic adaptation potential, which magnitude will depend on the genetic diversity available for natural selection. The growth synchronicity between the trees was both influenced by the intra-population genetic diversity and the amount of precipitation. In conclusion, it is very difficult to disentangle the effects of climate and genetics on the growth of the studied trees.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02099633
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Johann Housset. Variations de croissance et capacité d’adaptation des populations marginales fragmentées d’arbres des zones boréo-montagnardes, en réponse aux changements climatiques. Milieux et Changements globaux. École pratique des hautes études - EPHE PARIS; Université du Québec à Montréal, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015EPHE3041⟩. ⟨tel-02099633⟩

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