Les favelas à l'ombre des méga-événements sportifs internationaux, confrontation d'un nouveau type : les cas de Rio de Janeiro et Curitiba au Brésil

Abstract : The persistence of shanty towns in urban areas is a worldwide phenomenon and more particularly in developing countries. It appears as a major issue, which illustrates both social, political and environmental inequalities and some difficulties of public authorities in mastering the development of urban background. In Brazil, the phenomenon is called « favelisation ». Synonymous with destitution, urban plague and violence, favelas constitute a whole part of urban production that city policies and economic agents fail to contain or absorb. For a few years, emerging metropolises have attempted to single out through events with a worldwide impact. This is the case of Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba in Brazil. The former is part of the agenda of global mega-events (2014 Soccer World Cup, 2016 Olympic Games). The latter, integrated in the 2014 World Cup, had already stood out by becoming a model for urban development on a worldwide scale. The good reception of major sporting events entails then significant transformations for host territories: building stadiums, improvement of transport facilities. In these metropolises, although they have different proportions of inhabitants to slum (22% in Rio de Janeiro and 9,3% in Curitiba), it's impossible to avoid spatial confrontation. Through five favelas (Vila Autodromo, Vidigal, Morro da Providência, Vila Torres, Vila Parolin) in two different conurbations (Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba ), the thesis shows that the interactions between the favelas and major woldwide events are shape-shifting and depend hugely on local backgrounds. The space approach, joined with urban sociology, provides a new reading of the confrontation between mega-events and favelas and brands the transformations: the excluded favela, the globalised favela, the trophy favela, the integrated favela and the ordinary favela. At the core of this confrontation there are three logics. That of making the favelas invisible, visually striking, aims at making their embarassing aspect disappear; the transfering logic causes people's relocation and lifestyle change; eventually the cultural logic, which is a Brazilian specificity, knocks over dichotomy by relying on the favela culture to promote a certain image of Brazil. The research combines many observations and area analysis in situ, a press review (local and global) and semi-guided interviews. The results show that the nature of the confrontations depends on the way the mega-events are integrated to the urban development of the host conurbations. The more the mega-event adapts to the territory in a long run vision, the more the confrontation with favelas leads to their integration in the city networking. Conversely, when the city adapts itself to the mega-event and ajusts its tranformations to the event agenda, the nature of confrontations is more violent. In this case favelas are a disruptive element as well as an opportunity to stand out positively for the conurbations that manage to make up for the deficiencies. They question in depth the urban ambitions and production modes, owing both to their persistence and their ability to transform.
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Caroline Chabot. Les favelas à l'ombre des méga-événements sportifs internationaux, confrontation d'un nouveau type : les cas de Rio de Janeiro et Curitiba au Brésil. Sociologie. Université de Bordeaux; Universidade federal do Paraná (Brésil), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0459⟩. ⟨tel-02098221⟩

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