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Suivi prospectif d’une cohorte de femmes enceintes chroniquement infectées par le virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et de leurs enfants en RDP Laos

Abstract : Background: An estimated 257 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission accounts for the majority of new chronic HBV carriers, especially in Asia. HBV can be transmitted in utero, during delivery or during infancy and later. About 80–90% of infants infected at birth will develop a chronic HBV infection, and will have a high risk of developing serious complications including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related death during adult age. We aimed at assessing the percentage of infants successfully immunized in two major hospitals in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where HB immune globulin (HBIg) is not available. Methods: We studied a prospective cohort of chronically HBV infected pregnant women and their infants until 6 months post-partum from January 2015 to March 2017. All infants received the HB vaccine at birth and 6, 10 and 14 weeks thereafter, and their HBV status was assessed at 6 months of age. HBV surface gene sequencing was performed in infected mother-infant pairs.Results: Of 153 mothers with HB surface antigen (HBsAg), 60 (39%) had detectable serum HBe antigen (HBeAg). HBeAg positive pregnant women were younger than those negative (median age 26 versus 28 years; p=0.02) and had a significantly higher HBV viral load at delivery (median 8.0 versus 4.0 log10 IU/mL, p <0.001). A total of 141 infants including a pair of twins were included in the study and information at the time of vaccine administration after birth was available for 112 newborns. Of these, 110 (98%) received the HepB-BD within 24 hours after birth. One newborn received the vaccine 26 hours after birth because the vaccine was not available at the delivery room, and another newborn 3 days after birth due to fetal distress, which was erroneously considered to be a vaccine contra-indication. Among the 120 infants assessed at 6 months of age, 5 (4%) were positive for HBsAg and had a detectable HBV viral load by polymerase chain reaction. All were born to mothers with HBeAg and a viral load >8.5 log10 IU/mL. However, only four (3.3%, 95% CI 0.5% to 7.0 %) had a virus strain closely related to their mother’s strain. HBV surface gene mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 infected infants (G145G/R, G145G/A, M133T, M133I). Anti-HBs antibody level was above 10 IU/L in 105 (88%) infants at 6 months of age. Conclusions: Mother-to-child transmission occurred less frequently than expected without the use of HBIg. Adding HBIg and/or maternal antiviral prophylaxis may have prevented some of these infections. The observation of unsatisfactory levels of anti-HBs antibodies in 9% of the uninfected infants at 6 months highlights the need for improvement of the universal immunization procedures
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 11, 2019 - 1:58:06 PM
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Vatthanaphone Latthaphasavang. Suivi prospectif d’une cohorte de femmes enceintes chroniquement infectées par le virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et de leurs enfants en RDP Laos. Virologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1336⟩. ⟨tel-02096567⟩



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