Contribution de la pétrologie expérimentale sur les processus de formation de roches et de minéralisation de granites du Jurassique en Chine du Sud

Abstract : As a natural laboratory, the huge amounts of Mesozoic granite distributing in South China provided a unique opportunity to unravel the Mesozoic crust formation and evolution in southern China as well as for guiding mining exploration efforts in this area. What are the emplacement conditions of those Mesozoic granite in South China? What are the relationship between the emplacement conditions and the mineralization among those Mesozoic granites?We have experimentally established the phase relationships for the tin-bearing Jurassic Qitianling granite in South China. Three representative amphibole-bearing, metaluminous granitic samples were chosen for constraining crystallization conditions of the Qitianling pluton. Crystallization experiments were performed at 100-700 MPa, albeit mainly at 200 MPa or 300 MPa, at an fO₂ of ~NNO-1.3 (1.3 log unit below the Ni-NiO buffer) or ~NNO+2.4, at 660°C to 900°C, and at variable melt water contents (~3-8 wt%). Amphibole stability field and barometry both show that the pressure of magma emplacement was around 300-350 MPa. Amphibole and biotite Fe/Mg ratios further suggest that magmatic fO₂ was around NNO-1±0.5 near solidus, while Fe-Ti oxides record an fO2 increase up to NNO+1 below solidus. Amphibole crystallization is restricted to near H₂O-saturation conditions, requiring at least 5.5 wt% H₂Omelt at 200 MPa, or 6-8 wt % at ≥ 300 MPa. Amphibole occurrence in K₂O-rich metaluminous silicic magmas thus indicates water contents significantly higher than the canonical value of 4 wt%. The experimental liquid line of descent obtained at 200-300 MPa mimic the geochemical trend expressed by the pluton suggesting that fractionation in the upper crustal reservoir could happen. We deduced that the relatively low oxygen fugacity, high liquidus temperature and melt water rich condition may be an enabling environment for concentrating the ore elements in the early magmatic stage
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Fangfang Huang. Contribution de la pétrologie expérimentale sur les processus de formation de roches et de minéralisation de granites du Jurassique en Chine du Sud. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans; Nanjing University (Chine), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ORLE2026⟩. ⟨tel-02096500⟩

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