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Ancestral Reconstruction and Investigations of Genomics Recombination on Chloroplasts Genomes

Abstract : The theory of evolution is based on modern biology. All new species emerge of an existing species. As a result, different species share common ancestry,as represented in the phylogenetic classification. Common ancestry may explainthe similarities between all living organisms, such as general chemistry, cell structure,DNA as genetic material and genetic code. Individuals of one species share the same genes but (usually) different allele sequences of these genes. An individual inheritsalleles of their ancestry or their parents. The goal of phylogenetic studies is to analyzethe changes that occur in different organisms during evolution by identifying therelationships between genomic sequences and determining the ancestral sequences and theirdescendants. A phylogeny study can also estimate the time of divergence betweengroups of organisms that share a common ancestor. Phylogenetic trees are usefulin the fields of biology, such as bioinformatics, for systematic phylogeneticsand comparative. The evolutionary tree or the phylogenetic tree is a branched exposure the relationsevolutionary between various biological organisms or other existence depending on the differences andsimilarities in their genetic characteristics. Phylogenetic trees are built infrom molecular data such as DNA sequences and protein sequences. Ina phylogenetic tree, the nodes represent genomic sequences and are calledtaxonomic units. Each branch connects two adjacent nodes. Each similar sequencewill be a neighbor on the outer branches, and a common internal branch will link them to acommon ancestor. Internal branches are called hypothetical taxonomic units. Thus,Taxonomic units gathered in the tree involve being descended from a common ancestor. Ourresearch conducted in this dissertation focuses on improving evolutionary prototypesappropriate and robust algorithms to solve phylogenetic inference problems andancestral information about the order of genes and DNA data in the evolution of the complete genome, as well astheir applications.
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Bashar Al-Nuaimi. Ancestral Reconstruction and Investigations of Genomics Recombination on Chloroplasts Genomes. Bioinformatics [q-bio.QM]. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017UBFCD042⟩. ⟨tel-02096272⟩

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