Caractérisation et impact de la pollution dans les rejets urbains par temps de pluie (RUTP) sur des bassins versants de l'agglomération Orléanaise.

Abstract : The objective of this thesis was to characterize urban runoff water at the level of stormwater outletson three major urban sub-basins of the Orléans agglomeration, covering land areas ranging in size from463 to 2257 ha and with contrasted land use. 11 individual rain events were sampled at runoff outletsbetween April 2015 and June 2017 and 10 campaigns were also carried out in dry weather.In general, it was observed that the conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemicaloxygen demand (BOD5 and BOD28), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (NT), anions andmajor cations were found to be higher in dry weather conditions than in rainy weather. These resultsindicate a dilution effect due to precipitation.A mixture of rainwater and wastewater was also identified in the sub-basin of Ormes. Land use andhuman activities in the sub-basin studied were found to significantly influence the quality of the resultedrunoff from rainfall events. For example, in the Egouttier sub-basin 2, the presence of a large imperviouszone (industrial and residential, 40% of the surface area) was responsible for an increase in the parametersBOD5, BOD28, COD and NT.The flows at the outlets of the different water quality parameters were evaluated and compared withthose from the four main wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and those from the Loire. The estimatedloads of the three sub-urban basins accounts for approximately 166.61% of the load of the four WWTP.The three sub-basins have a small impact on the Loire in terms of annual flows (about 1.62% for wetweather case).Two versions of a conceptual model of accumulation / washoff were evaluated to estimate pollutantrunoff; the classical version and a modified version in which the pollutant accumulation parameter has alogarithmic form. The performances of the models were found acceptable for the MES and the COD. TheNash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients were found as 0.84 and 0.85 for the two versions at the Egouttier subbasin.For trace elements in particulate phase, the correlation with the experimental measured value wasfound good as well. In general, when a measured flow was less than 1 kg.ha-1, the modified model was nolonger applicable.The first simulation tests of the quality and quantity of urban runoff were carried out with MIKEURBAN, which equips both MOUSE and SWMM modeling software. For water quantity, the hydrographsindicated that the maximum flow obtained with SWMM was always lower than that obtained with MOUSE.For water quality, TSS mass was still more strongly impacted by the leaching of TSS in the MOUSE modelthan in the SWMM model.This work can be considered as the first step of the evaluation work of RUTP for the Orléansagglomeration. It provides a solid foundation for a future monitoring program.
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Mohammed Al-Juhaishi. Caractérisation et impact de la pollution dans les rejets urbains par temps de pluie (RUTP) sur des bassins versants de l'agglomération Orléanaise.. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ORLE2021⟩. ⟨tel-02096061⟩

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