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Modelling the vibrations generated by turbulent flows in ducts

Abstract : Pipeline and duct vibrations can cause a range of issues from unplanned shutdownsto decreased equipment life time. Thus, the prediction of flow-induced vibrations is essential in piping design in many industrial plants, especially, for Gas industry. This study deals with the prediction of pipe flow noise and vibration at low Mach number. We aim to present a numerical and experimental study which can offer engineers a better understanding of the coupling between random excitation and duct section for two geometries (circular or rectangular). An experimental facility and measurement approach is developed and used to validate numerical predictions. Two cases are investigated: (i) a straight duct with no singularity, duct acoustic modes are excited by the Turbulent Boundary Layer (TBL) and (ii) a straight duct with a diaphragm inserted upstream generating a localized acoustic source. The acoustic contribution is either measured via cross-spectra based methods or calculated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and aeroacoustic analogies. The response of the structure is estimated via a ‘blocked’ approach using analytical modal Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of a simply supported finite duct. Measurements will lead to evaluate and suggest improvements to existing Cross Power Spectral Density (CPSD) empirical models in a context of internal turbulent flows. Experimental modalanalysis of a finite rectangular duct are confronted to computational methods to assess the effect of the Boundary Conditions (BCs), the resistive damping from coupling with the internal acoustic medium and aerodynamic damping. The fluid-structure coupling is analyzed through the joint acceptance function both in the spatial and wave number domain. The excitation includes both the acoustic and hydrodynamic contributions using CPSD written on the basis of Corcos, Diffuse Acoustic Field (DAF) and acoustic duct mode coherence functions. Finally, the numerical and experimental studies in this thesis were used to develop a framework for studying and modelling pipe flow noise and vibration which links CFD, analytical and empirical models to efficient random analysis techniques.
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Florian Hugues. Modelling the vibrations generated by turbulent flows in ducts. Acoustics [physics.class-ph]. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018COMP2470⟩. ⟨tel-02094391⟩

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