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Musicalité, corps et spiritualité dans la poésie de la négritude chez Césaire, Senghor et Craveirinha

Abstract : The negritude deals with the quest for identity which is the result of the colonization and with literary aesthetics, borrowing its language and rhythm from both of the countries : the one where the author was born and the colonizing one. Therefore, it is linked to politics. In poetry, it creates a particular rhythm which reveals sometimes a tension between the cultures. Moreover, the rhythm in Aimé Césaire's, Léopold Sédar Senghor's and José Craveirinha's poems has a resonance in the typography. Typography is also related to music thanks to the space occupied by the words on the page. The rythmic tam-tam bounds are, for instance, typographical bounds in Léopold Sédar Senghor's works. This rhythm, which is called musicality in poetry, lets differents languages in poetry. The question deals with poetry and musical instruments. In other words, is there an element giving birth to the other one or is there a coexistence of them ?Moreover, nearly systematically typography also gives roundtrips between eyesight and hearing. These roundtrips, allowed by the lack of ponctuation or its absence, let the reader give rhythm to the reading. The colors and the light mentioned in the poems highlight eyesight.The poems become paintings. Both the rhythm and the parallel between the poems and the calligrams give them a physical aspect. This one is revealed in the topic of body which is, frequently, a woman body. On one hand, the feminine body is full of sensuality, but on the other one it also is the mother's one, showing the native land. Through this, the link between the poet and his native land is underlined. That can also explain a sort of animality when the poets evoke the rhythm of tam-tam and the making of this musical instrument with a piece of skin. José Craveirinha is strongly concerned, because the poet pronounces his desire to become a « tambor » (drum), and Aimé Césaire's trance and its frenetic rhythm when the musicality created by the anaphor imitates the rhythm of tam-tam. Thus, rhythm and musicality are close to each other. The feminine body extends to the poet's and the reader's bodies because the perceptible is in the place of honour in the poems of the three authors studied. That's why the notion of border appears. It reveals the delimitation between a portion of space and the other that Gilles Deleuze already mentioned. The border is made to be broken, as the philosopher says. This way, the three authors' poetry is a poetry focused on the passing from a place to the other. The experience of senses is crucial for the poets, and also the resonance of poetic speech which can express sufferings, in José Craveirinha's poems for instance.
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Eva Hernandez-Monmarty. Musicalité, corps et spiritualité dans la poésie de la négritude chez Césaire, Senghor et Craveirinha. Littératures. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR2032⟩. ⟨tel-02094265⟩

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