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Liturgie et organisation de l'espace dans un groupe cathédral : le cérémonial de la cathédrale de Metz (XIIè-XIIIè siècles)

Abstract : The Liber de ordinatione et officio totius anni in ecclesia Metensi, usually designed under the name Cérémonial, is a lost medieval liturgy manuscript which was last kept at Metz municipal library (ms. 82). Nowadays, the full text is fortunately known thanks to the scientific edition led by Bishop Pelt. This text was likely dated from the XIIth century but the manuscript was quickly perceived as a copy from the XIIIth century. It has always intrigued researchers and gave rise to numerous debates due to its typological classification. As a canonical ordinary, this text describes with precision the liturgical particularisms of Metz cathedral, and details the ordinance of each celebrations, thus linking the various players with the various spaces. It has never been studied for itself and was only used to describe the Ottonian cathedral in which it was written, in parallel to some archaeological discoveries at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth century. The main interesting feature of this work is its analysis of a fundamental medieval text about the liturgy at Metz. The document also details the architecture of the cathedral built by Thierry Ist, and consecrated by Thierry IInd on June 27th, 1040, flanked by the Saint-Jean baptistry on its forecourt, and by a cloister on its southern flank, with the latter becoming the current Place d’Armes in 1754. It also names the five adjacent churches: Saint-Pierre-le-Majeur, Sainte-Marie, Saint-Paul, Saint-Pierre-le-vieux and Saint-Gall. This cathedral group is a legacy of the claustrum devised by Bishop Chrodegang in the VIIIth century, during the great liturgical reform. Hence, the study of the Ceremonial enables the understanding of the canonical group’s organisation by the deployment of the liturgy in that architectural environment. Spaces are organised, hierarchised, and unified by what makes the particularity of Metz’ liturgy: its stational feature, similar to the Roman liturgy brought from Rome by Chrodegang during the VIIIth century. This specialisation of sanctuaries plays a part in the spatial ‘marking’ of liturgy and allows a better understanding of it. The functionalist approach of space thus becomes a highly symbolic approach, in which the canonical district is considered both as a whole, and as an organised space where each ecclesial is necessary for the group’s unity. The information also includes the city’s topography, and other manuscripts from Metz complete the data contained in our text. The worship’s practices of Metz cathedral group during the XIIth century are not as singular as one might believe. We know of numerous of the XIIIth century ordinairies that were attached to canon cathedral communities.
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Virginie Trimbur. Liturgie et organisation de l'espace dans un groupe cathédral : le cérémonial de la cathédrale de Metz (XIIè-XIIIè siècles). Art et histoire de l'art. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL3H041⟩. ⟨tel-02093145⟩

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