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Theses

L'avortement en France à l'époque moderne. Entre normes et pratiques (mi-XVIe - 1791)

Abstract : This PhD thesis aims at filling an historiographical void by proposing an overview of abortion in early modern France. Though it is a secret and forbidden pratice, abortion appears in many sources. First, this work questions speeches about abortion in order to understand the conditions that enable its existence. At this time, abortion is a polysemous word that is used in a wide range of contexts. In the medical field the animation or viability of the fœtus generates multiple debates. Abortion is considered as a crime, but not separated from infanticide in the Law, which raises multiple questions. And for the first time in 1791, the penal code considers abortion as a specific crime. This work analyzes this evolution by questioning different speeches held about abortion in different but connected fields : medicine, theology, law. Consequently this thesis analyzes the criminalization of abortion as well as its punishment. As a matter of fact, abortion appears in judicial archives but is always associated with others crimes – in trials for « suppression de part et recel de grossesse », or in the context of the repression of poisoners led by the police in Paris since the end of the XVIIth century. The repression itself presents difficulties that this work analyzes, as well as the bias generated with its connection to other criminal categories. This study finally deals with the practices themselves and examines abortion as a social phenomenon. I mostly consider the actors and actresses of abortion and specifically the women who abort and their relatives (husband or lovers, parents, etc.,). I also pay special attention to secret, rumor and denunciation in the context of urban and rural communities, and finally to the persons women solicit to get an abortion, to knowledge, to access to this knowledge as well as its transmission.
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Laura Tatoueix. L'avortement en France à l'époque moderne. Entre normes et pratiques (mi-XVIe - 1791). Histoire. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR139⟩. ⟨tel-02093000⟩

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