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Résidus de médicaments d'un cours d'eau urbain : constitution d'une base de données pour la gestion des risques écotoxicologiques

Abstract : Drug residues (DR) are biologically active molecules and their environmental occurrence can produce negatives effects on the ecosystems. In order to identify the ecotoxicological impact linked to their use in the Toulouse area, 26 DR were searched in two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Toulouse, inlet and outlet, and into the natural water receiving the WWTP releases, the Garonne river. In the Garonne river, sampling were carried out upstream and downstream of WWTP outlets in order to study impact of their releases on the ecotoxicological risks linked to the DR occurrence in the river. Ecotoxicological risks were estimated with the ratio between measured environmental concentrations (exposure) and environmental hazard threshold (hazard) for each drug. These ratios allowed to define hazard quotients (HQ) according to time and space. Despite the fact that most of DR were detected in the Garonne upstream of WWTP releases, some of them showed significant greater concentrations downstream the WWTP releases. For these last ones, results highlight that WWTP releases are responsible for the ecotoxicological risks linked to the presence of DR in the Garonne river. As part of this study, a database was made, including 1/ ecotoxicity data coming from scientific literature (1237 data provided from bioassays, modellings and biomarkers and 382 Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC)); 2/ exposition data from Toulouse city (125 collected samplings). Since the lowest PNEC available in the database, the HQ study showed ecotoxicological risks linked to the occurrence of 7 DR in the Garonne among the 26 searched. In the decreasing order of the risks percentage occurrence, these 7 DR are Carbamazepine (antiepileptic) (100%), Clarithromycin (antibiotic) (100%), Diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)) (100%), Estrone (sexual hormone) (100%), Ofloxacin (antibiotic) (93%), Ibuprofen (NSAID) (62%) and Propranolol (cardiovascular) (31%). The ecotoxicity concentrations integrated in the database showed important intra-molecular variabilities. For environmental risk assessment (ERA), european regulation recommends to use only one ecotoxicity data to define the environmental threshold required for the ERA (PNEC). These intra-molecular variabilities demonstrate that implementation of the ERA process proposed by regulation could create under-estimations of the ecotoxicological risks. Moreover, exposure data temporel variability for the 7 DR identified as potentially hazardous causes 1/ alternation of risked and non-risked periods for Ibuprofen, Ofloxacin and Propranolol; 2/ proven risks whatever the considered period for Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac and Estrone. These results suggest that concentrations variability, whether predicted (PEC) or measured (MEC), should be taken into account to assess the DR impact on the aquatics ecosystems. With better access to health care and an ageing population leading to a multiple medication, the production, the use and the pharmaceuticals elimination should increase. Because of their role in the public health and their potential impact on the ecosystems, the presence of DR in the aquatic environments is an issue that should be taken in hand by a concerted action in order to prevent, reduce and manage DR release in the environment.
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Doriane Destrieux. Résidus de médicaments d'un cours d'eau urbain : constitution d'une base de données pour la gestion des risques écotoxicologiques. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30114⟩. ⟨tel-02092971⟩

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