Stationnarité forte sur des graphes discrets ou quantiques

Abstract : In this thesis, we are interested in the notion of strong stationary time, and in that, strongly connected, of strong stationary dual. These tools allow to study the convergence of ergodic processes, by determining a random time when the equilibrium is reached. The state space of the considered processes are discrete or continuous graphs. In the first part, we consider the discrete case, and we explicit a necessary and sufficient condition to the existence, for any initial distribution, of a finite strong stationary time. To do so, we construct explicitly a strong stationary dual, with values in the set of connected subsets of the graph, which evolves at each step by adding or removing some points at its border. Whenever this operation separates the dual set in several parts, in order not to disconnect it, one of these parts is chosen randomly, with a probability proportionnal to its weight relative to the invariant distribution. We also study the general behaviour of any dual process,2 and we give some other examples. In the second part, we deal with the continuous case, and the studied process is then a diffuion. We caracterize its invariant distribution, and we explicit an infinitesimal generator, which is expected to be that of a dual process. Nevertheless, this case turns out to be a little more involved that the discrete one. The dual process is thus constructed only for a brownian motion on a particular graph, as the unique solution of a martingale problem. Some leads are given to solve the case of diffusions on more general graphs, especially by using the convergence of a sequence of jump processes such as those presented in the first part.
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Guillaume Copros. Stationnarité forte sur des graphes discrets ou quantiques. Equations aux dérivées partielles [math.AP]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30088⟩. ⟨tel-02092867⟩

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