Étude des biais observationnels induits par le caractère tridimensionnel des atmosphères d’exoplanètes

Anthony Caldas 1
1 ECLIPSE 2018
LAB - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux [Pessac]
Abstract : Transmission spectroscopy provides us with information on the atmospheric properties at the limb, which is often intuitively assumed to be a narrow annulus aound ther planet. Consequently, the few recent studies on the effect of atmospheric horizontal heterogeneities on transmission spectra have used approaches sensitive to variations along the limb only. Here we demonstrate that the region probed in transmission – the limb – actually extends significantly toward the day and night sides of the planet. Consequently we show that thestrong day-night thermal and compositional gradients expected on synchronous exoplanets create sufficient heterogeneities across the limb to result in important systematic effects on the spectrum and bias its interpretation. To quantify these effects, we developed a 3D radiative transfer model able to generate transmission spectra of atmospheres based on 3D atmospheric structures, whether they come from a Global Climate Model or more parametrized models. We first apply this tool to a simulation of the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b toproduce synethic JWST observations and show that producing a spectrum using only atmospheric columns at the terminator results in errors greater than expected noise. This demonstrates the necessity of a real 3D approach to model data for such precise observatories.Second, we investigate how day-night temperature gradients cause a systematic bias in retrieval analysis performed with 1D forward models. For that purpose we synthesize a large set of forward spectra for prototypical HD209458 b and GJ 1214 b type planets varying the temperatures of the day and night sides as well as the width of the transition region. We then perform typical retrievalanalyses and compare the retrieved parameters to the ground truth of the input model. This study reveals systematic biases on the retrieved temperature (found to be higher than the terminator temperature) and absorber abundances. This is due to the fact that the hotter dayside is more extended vertically and screens the nightside—a result of the nonlinear properties of atmospheric transmission.These biases will be difficult to detect as the 1D profiles used in the retrieval procedure are found to provide an excellent match to theobserved spectra based on standard fitting criteria (chi2, posterior distributions). This fact needs to be kept in mind when interpretingcurrent and future data.
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Anthony Caldas. Étude des biais observationnels induits par le caractère tridimensionnel des atmosphères d’exoplanètes. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0439⟩. ⟨tel-02090554⟩

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