La fabrique collective des paysages climatiques : une enquête avec les parcs éoliens citoyens en Frise du Nord

Abstract : Northern Friesland is a region on the Wadden Sea shores in Germany, on the border with Denmark. Since 1991 farmers and locals have partnered to buy and manage wind turbines themselves. They named their companies "citizens wind parks". In 2018, they represent 90% of the installed wind capacity in Friesland, ie around 2000 MW. This thesis is an inquiry with those who made this energy landscape. The “inquiry” is here conceived as method stating that the solution emerges as the problem be-comes clearer. In doing so, the thesis scours from 1975, 40 years of experience with collectively developing and managing wind farms, an experience which suggests renewing our understanding of the relations between energy projects and climate change. Taken as an experience of dwelling the climate, these citizen wind landscapes are successively observed along their sensitive (relational intensities to the environment), practical (socio-technical processes of project set-ups) and political dimensions (collective structuring between citizens and administrations to solve a problem). The thesis proposes a pragmatist and ecologist reformulation (together with John Dewey, Daniel Céfaï and Tim Ingold) of this experience as the collective making of climatic landscapes. The thesis also puts forward the concept of landscape assembly, as a form of landscape, in the political sense inspired by the ancient Landschaften (Kenneth Olwig), to describe a plastic figure, heterogeneous and situated, capable of conducting this experience and of giving an account of it. This last aspect is also discussed in terms of democratic opportunities (Joëlle Zask) and relational responsibility (Joan Tronto) to question the ways of apprehending climate changes.
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Edith Chezel. La fabrique collective des paysages climatiques : une enquête avec les parcs éoliens citoyens en Frise du Nord. Géographie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAH022⟩. ⟨tel-02090552⟩

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