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Études pour un résonateur optique à profil d'intensité plat et son application à l'interférométrie atomique

Abstract : Inertials sensors based on atom interferometry use cold atom clouds cooled to micro-Kelvin temperatures and interrogation times of a few hundred of milliseconds.These conditions lead to an expansion of the atom clouds reaching centimetric sizes, which leads to difficulties when trying to adress them efficiently with gaussian laser beams.This work aims at developing different means to counteract the constraints brought by these gaussian beams and their limited intensity.Two main axes are explored.On the one hand, the intensity inhomogeneity of the interrogation beams has been adressed by the study, realisation and characterization of beamshaping solutions.One of these solutions has been adapted to an atom interferometry experiment, and its impact characterized.On the other hand, the current use of gaussian beams with centimetric sizes to interrogate as many atoms as possible brings constraints on the laser power.The idea of taking advantage of the optical gain of optical resonators rises in the field and constitutes the heart of this work.Different optical resonators concepts have been considered to allow the resonance of a large optical mode in a compact geometry.We built a degenerated optical resonator, with an intra-cavity lens, and studied the influence of misalignments and opticals defects on the resonance of large injected gaussian beams.These two devices and their combination open the way towards a generation of advanced atom interferometers, for precise experiments of fundamental physics or the development of compact cold atom inertial sensors.
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Nicolas Mielec. Études pour un résonateur optique à profil d'intensité plat et son application à l'interférométrie atomique. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEO003⟩. ⟨tel-02089395⟩

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