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Étude comparative des effets moléculaires et cellulaires induits par des rayonnements X de différentes énergies

Abstract : In a radiological examination, low-energy X-radiation is used (<100 keV). For other radiological procedures, the energy used is several MeV. ICRP in publication 103 has currently considered that photons irrespective of their energy have the same radiation weighting factor. Nevertheless, there are topological differences at the nanoscale of X-ray energy deposition as a function of its energy spectrum, meaning that the different interactions with living matter could vary in biological efficacy. To study these differences, we characterized our irradiation conditions in terms of initial photon energies, but especially in terms of energy spectra of secondary electrons at the cell nucleus level, using Monte Carlo simulations. We evaluated signaling of DNA damage by monitoring a large number of γH2A.X foci after exposure of G0/G1-phase synchronized human primary endothelial cells at a dose from 0.25 to 5 Gy at 40 kV, 220 kV and 4 MV X-rays. Number and spatial distribution of γH2A.X foci were explored. In parallel, we investigated cell behavior through cell death and ability of a mother cell to produce two daughter cells. We also studied the missegregation rate after cell division. We report a higher number of DNA double-strand breaks signaled by γH2A.X for 40 kVp and/or 220 kVp compared to 4 MVp for the highest tested doses of 2 and 5 Gy. We observed no difference between the biological endpoint studies with 40 kVp and 220 kVp X-ray spectra. This lack of difference could be explained by the relative similarity of the calculated energy spectra of secondary electrons at the cell monolayer. The energy spectrum of secondary electrons seems to be more closely related to the level of DNA damage measured by γH2A.X than the initial spectrum of photon energy or voltage settings. Our results indicate that as the energy spectrum of secondary electrons increases, the DNA damage signaled by γH2A.X decreases and this effect is observable beyond 220 kVp.
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Amélie Fréneau. Étude comparative des effets moléculaires et cellulaires induits par des rayonnements X de différentes énergies. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS350⟩. ⟨tel-02089152⟩

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