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Capacité des doubles troupeaux herbagers bovins laitiers-bovins allaitants à concilier une meilleure valorisation du parcellaire avec une flexibilité accrue de fonctionnement

Abstract : Permanent pastures represent potential reservoirs of forage and cover more than 66% of the area of mountain zones. Nonetheless, these zones have strong natural limitations that make it difficult to use herbage resources. Geographic characteristics of fields and farm organization must thus be considered in more detail in the management of forage areas to improve pasture-based livestock systems functioning. Simultaneous production of dairy and beef cattle herds (i.e. “mixed dairy-beef cattle systems”) falls within the scope of agroecological approaches and may appear as factor favoring the functioning of cattle systems with greater forage autonomy and better economic and environmental performances. We analyzed and modeled the functioning of these mixed dairy-beef cattle systems to explore compromises between livestock management and the production level of the herds, overall forage autonomy, use of the geographical diversity, level and variability of profits and sustainability of pasture use.To address this issue, we tested three hypotheses: (I)- Mixed dairy-beef cattle systems use grazed herbage better than specialized cattle systems (dairy or beef) in zones with constraints while maintaining good economic performance. (II)- Under conditions of optimal economic functioning, mixed dairy-beef cattle systems adapt better to price variations, generating more stable and higher profits, than specialized cattle systems. (III)- Mixed dairy-beef cattle systems use biomass well, with better environmental performances, while conserving ecosystem services of the vegetation.We used the bioeconomic optimization model Orfee (Optimization of Ruminant Farm for Economic and Environmental assessment), developed to assess livestock systems, based on data from two farms in a steady state (case studies BL18 and BL22 from the French livestock-network database DIAPASON). Orfee was adapted to consider geographic constraints and field heterogeneity based on the French typology of permanent prairies. We then used the model to predict the best equilibria, corresponding to optimal conditions of functioning of farms, represented by the two case studies in five scenarios (100D, 75D, 50D, 25D and 0D, where D represents the percentage of dairy cattle in the herd). Analysis with the simulations yielded robust biotechnical and economic indicators for assessing mixed dairy-beef cattle systems in mountain zones.Based on the results, mixed dairy-beef cattle systems, especially those with 50% dairy cattle, maximize the use of grazed herbage in zones with constraints on mechanization and access of dairy cows to pastures. These systems have a greater ability to adapt to economic variations, with better levels of animal production and more attractive and less variable economic performances than those of specialized cattle systems. These systems also have better compromises between environmental performances than specialized cattle systems.
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Zakary Rodrigue Diakite. Capacité des doubles troupeaux herbagers bovins laitiers-bovins allaitants à concilier une meilleure valorisation du parcellaire avec une flexibilité accrue de fonctionnement. Sciences agricoles. Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020], 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC055⟩. ⟨tel-02088079⟩

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