, Institute for Alternative Futures, The Bio-monitoring Futures Project: Final Report and Recommendations, pp.6-14, 2006.

N. Wickramasinghe and E. Geisler, Encyclopedia of Healthcare Information Systems, Medical Information Science Reference, pp.1-10, 2008.

C. Bock, L. Carnahan, S. Fenves, M. Gruninger, V. Kashyap et al., Healthcare Strategic Focus Area: Clinical Informatics, vol.7263, 2005.

A. Kokinaki, I. Chouvarda, and N. Maglaveras, Integrating SCP-ECG Files and Patient Records: An Ontology Based Approach, Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, pp.1-7, 2006.

A. Ryan, Towards Semantic Interoperability in Healthcare: Ontology Mapping from SNOMED CT to HL7 Version 3, AOW 2006 Proceedings of the second Australasian workshop on Advances in ontologies, pp.69-74, 2006.

E. Ko, H. Lee, and J. Lee, Ontology and CDSS Based Intelligent Health Data Management in Healthcare Server, International Journal of Social, pp.119-123, 2007.

E. S. Berner, Hospital Based Decision Support, Clinical Decision Support Systems -Theory and Practice, 2006.

K. Verlaenen, W. Joosen, and P. Verbaeten, Arriclides: An Architecture Integrating Clinical Decision Support Models, Proceedings of the 40 th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp.1-10, 2007.

P. Marcheschi, A. Mazzarisi, S. Dalmiani, and A. Benassi, ECG Standards for the Interoperability in Patient EHRS in Italy, Computers in Cardiology, pp.549-552, 2006.

M. D. Silveira, N. Guelfi, J. Baldacchino, P. Plumer, M. Seil et al., A Survey of Interoperability in E-Health Systems: The European Approach, International Conference on Health Informatics and Health Informatics, pp.172-175, 2008.

W. J. Graben and M. G. Deftsch, Ontologies and Their Application in HER, eHealth2008-Medical Informatics Meets ehealth, pp.1-4, 2008.

G. B. Laleci and A. Dogac, A Semantically Enriched Clinical Guideline Model Enabling Deployment in Heterogeneous Healthcare Environment, IEEE Transaction on Information Technology in Biomedicine, pp.263-273, 2009.

R. Cornet, Clinical Terminology in Practical Use for Recording and Researching Reasons for Admission in Intensive Care, J1B. Academic Medical Center, pp.1-7, 2006.

S. Gnanambal and M. Thangaraj, Research Directions in Semantic Web on Healthcare, IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, pp.449-453, 2010.

C. Snae and M. Brueckner, Personal Health Assistance Service Expert System, International Journal of Social, pp.197-200, 2007.

D. Han, An Evolving Mobile E-Health Service Platform, International Conference in Consumer Electronics, pp.475-485, 2006.

F. B. Nardon and L. A. Moura, Knowledge Sharing and Information Integration in Healthcare Using Ontologies and Deductive Databases, MEDINFO, pp.62-66, 2004.

D. Han, I. Ko, and S. Park, Ontology Based Context Modeling and Reasoning for U-Healthcare, Institute for Infocomm Research, pp.1-5, 2002.

J. Dang and A. Hedayati, An Ontological Knowledge Framework for Adaptive Medical Workflow, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp.829-836, 2008.

T. Ah-hwee, Text Mining: The State of Art and the Challenges, proceedings of PAKDD'99 Workshop on Knowledge discovery from Advanced Databases, pp.71-76, 1999.

W. Pik and M. Gahegan, Beyond ontologies: Toward situated representations of scientific knowledge, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, pp.659-673, 2007.

G. Geleijnse and J. Korst, Learning Effective Surface Text Patterns for Information Extraction, The 11 th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptive Text Extraction and Mining, pp.1-8, 2006.

C. Brewster, F. Ciravegna, and Y. Wilks, Background and Foreground Knowledge in Dynamic Ontology Construction: Viewing Text as Knowledge Maintenance, Proceedings of the SIGIR Semantic Web Workshop, pp.1-8, 2003.

R. Studer, V. R. Benjamin, and D. Fensel, Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods, Data Knowledge Engineering, pp.161-197, 1998.

P. D. Turney, Mining the Web for Synonyms: PMI-IR versus LSA on TOEFL, Proceedings of the 12 th European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML, 2001), pp.491-502

D. Lin, Automatic Retrieval and Clustering of Similar Words, Proceedings of the 36 th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17 th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-ACL), pp.768-774, 1998.

M. A. Hearst, Automatic Acquisition of Hyponyms from Large Text Corpora, Proceedings of the 14 th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING, pp.539-545, 1992.

K. Ahmad and H. Fulford, Knowledge Processing: Semantic Relations and their Use in Elaborating Terminology, 1992.

M. Berland and E. Charniak, Finding Parts in Very Large Corpora, Proceedings of the 37 th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), pp.57-64, 1999.

J. Lyons, , vol.1, pp.6-9, 1977.

J. Volker, P. Hitzler, and P. Cimiano, Acquisition of OWL DL Axioms from Lexical Resources, Proceedings of the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), pp.670-685, 2007.

Z. Vendler, Verbs and Times, The Philosophical Review, pp.143-160, 1957.

B. Comrie, Aspect: Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems, 1976.

W. Van-de-velde and A. Aamodt, Machine Learning Issues in CommonKADS, 1992.

Y. Sure, S. Staab, and R. Studer, Methodology for Development and Employment of Ontology-Based Knowledge Management Applications, Sigmod Record, pp.18-23, 2002.

D. Vrandecic, S. Pinto, C. Tempich, and Y. Sure, The Diligent Knowledge Processes, Journal of Knowledge Management, pp.85-96, 2005.

M. Fernandez, A. G6mez-prez, and N. Juristo, METHONTOLOGY: From Ontological Art Towards Ontological Engineering, Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Ontological Engineering, pp.33-40, 1997.

A. Gomez-perez, Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge on Ontologies and Knowledge bases, Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems, pp.1-19, 1999.

A. Gangemi, C. Catenacci, M. Ciaramita, and J. Lehmann, A Theoretical Framework for Ontology Evaluation and Validation, Proceedings of SWAP 2005, the 2 nd Italian Semantic web Workshop, pp.1-16, 2005.

J. Pak and L. Zhou, A Framework for Ontology Evaluation, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, pp.10-18, 2011.

J. Brank, A Survey of Ontology Evaluation Techniques, Proceeding of the Conference on Data Mining and Data Warehouses Sikdd2005, pp.166-169, 2005.

T. Mitchell, Int'I edition, Machine Learning, 1997.

A. K. Jain and R. C. Dubes, Algorithms for Clustering Data, 1988.

R. Agrawal, T. Imielinski, and A. Swami, Mining Association Rules between Sets of Items in Large Databases, SIGMOD '93 Proceedings of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data, pp.207-216, 1993.

A. Maedche and S. Staab, Discovering Conceptual Relations from Text, Proceedings of the 14 th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), pp.321-325, 2000.

P. Cimiano, A. Hotho, and S. Staab, Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora Using Formal Concept Analysis, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, pp.305-339, 2005.

N. Lavrac and S. Dzeroski, Inductive Logic Programming: Techniques and Applications, Ellis Horwood Series in Artificial Intelligence, 1994.

S. Staab and R. Studer, Ontology Learning, Handbook of Ontologies, pp.173-190, 2004.

K. E. Campbell, D. E. Oliver, and E. H. Shortliffe, The Unified Medical Language System: Toward a Collaborative Approach for Solving Terminological Problems, JAMIA, pp.12-16, 1998.

D. Ayele, J. Chevallet, M. Meshesha, and G. Mitikie, Enhancing Semantic Relation Quality of UMLS Knowledge Sources, MEDES '12 Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital Ecosystems, pp.59-66, 2012.

D. Ayele, J. Chevallet, M. Meshesha, and G. Mitikie, Constructing Reference Semantic Predictions from Biomedical Knowledge Sources, Proceedings of COLING 2012: Technical Papers, pp.133-148, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01954361

C. Fellbaum, WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1998.

E. Beisswanger, BioTop: An Upper Domain Ontology for the Life Sciences, pp.1-7, 2008.

F. Freitas, S. Schulz, and E. Moraes, Survey of Current Terminologies and Ontologies in Biology and Medicine, RECIIS -Elect. J. Commun. Inf. Innov Health, pp.7-18, 2009.

A. T. Mccray, Aggregating UMLS Semantic Types for Reducing Conceptual Complexity, MEDINFO, pp.216-220, 2001.

L. T. Vizenor, O. Bodenreider, and A. T. Mccray, Auditing Associative Relations across Two Knowledge Sources, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp.426-439, 2009.

H. Erdogan, Exploiting UMLS Semantics for Checking Semantic Consistency among UMLS Concepts, MEDINFO, pp.749-753, 2010.

A. Aronson and F. Lang, An Overview of MetaMap: Historical Perspective and Recent Advances, JAMIA, pp.229-236, 2010.

C. B. Ahlers, M. Fiszman, D. Demner-fushman, F. Lang, and T. C. Rindflesch, Extracting Semantic Predications from Medline Citations for Pharmacogenomics, Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, pp.1-12, 2007.

A. Lozano-tello and A. Gómez-pérez, Ontometric: A Method to Choose the Appropriate Ontology, J. Datab. Mgmt, pp.1-18, 2004.

T. Berners-lee, The Semantic Web, Scientific American, pp.30-37, 2001.

S. Mukundan, Spinning the Semantic Web, 2003.

T. R. Gruber, A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications, Knowledge Acquisition, pp.199-221, 1993.

L. Prusak, Where Did Knowledge Management Come From?, IBM Systems Journal, pp.1002-1007, 2001.

T. H. Davenport, Some Principles of Knowledge Management, 1998.

R. Dieng, O. Corby, A. Giboin, and M. Ribiere, Methods and Tools for Corporate Knowledge Management, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, pp.567-598, 1999.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00073203

H. J. Hendricks and D. J. Vriens, Knowledge-Based Systems and Knowledge Management Friends or Foes?, Information and Management, pp.113-125, 1999.

J. Sinclair, Look Up: an Account of the COBUILD Project in Lexical Computing, 1987.

T. Winograd, Understanding Natural Language, 1972.

A. Maedche and S. Staab, Knowledge Acquisition, Modeling and Management, Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference, pp.189-202, 2002.

B. Moulin and D. Rousseau, Automated Knowledge Acquisition from Regulatory Texts, IEEE Expert, pp.27-35, 1992.

K. A. Ericsson and H. A. Simon, Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data, 1996.

J. H. Boose and J. M. Bradshaw, Expertise Transfer and Complex Problems: Using AQUINAS as A KA Workbench for KBS, 1988.

J. Blythe and S. Ramachandran, Knowledge Acquisition Using an English-Based Method Editor, Proc. 1999 Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, 1999.

K. L. Mcgraw and K. Harbison-briggs, Knowledge Acquisition: Principles and Guidelines, 1989.

Y. A. Wilks, B. L. Slator, and M. Guthrie, Electronic Words Dictionaries, Computers and Meaning, 1996.

J. F. Sowa, Knowledge Representation, 2000.

P. M. Roget, Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition, Longman, p.1852

M. Masterman, The Thesaurus in Syntax and Semantics, Mechanical Translation, 1957.

K. S. Jones, Synonymy and Semantic Classification, 1986.

L. Newman, Descartes' Epistemology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2000.

D. Yarowsky, Word-Sense Disambiguation Using Statistical Models of Roget's Categories Trained on Large Corpora, Proceeding of COLING-92, pp.454-460, 1992.

C. T. Yu and G. Salton, The Effectiveness of the Thesaurus Method in Automatic Information Retrieval, National Science Foundation, pp.75-261, 1975.

Y. Qiu and H. Frei, Concept Based Query Expansion, Proc. 16 th Int. Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ACM SIGIR, pp.160-169, 1993.

C. J. Crouch and B. Yang, Experiments in Automatic Statistical Thesaurus Construction, Proceedings of the 15 th Annual International Conference in Information Retrieval, pp.77-88, 1992.

E. M. Voorhees, Wordnet: an Electronic Lexical Database, pp.1-6, 1998.

J. Kekäläinen, The Effects of Query Complexity, Expansion and Structure on Retrieval Performance in Probabilistic Text Retrieval, 1999.

E. Sormunen, J. Kekalainen, J. Koivisto, and K. Jarvelin, Document Text Characteristics Affect the Ranking of the Most Relevant Documents by Expanded Structured Queries, Journal of Documentation, pp.358-376, 2000.

P. Clough and M. Stevenson, Cross-Language Information Retrieval Using EuroWordNet and Word Sense Disambiguation, ECIR Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.327-337, 2004.

N. Guarino, Some Ontological Principles for Designing Upper Level Lexical Resources, Proceedings of the 1 st International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, pp.1-8, 1998.

P. Morville, Little Blue Folders, 2016.

J. Ellman, Corporate Ontologies as Information Interfaces, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.79-80, 2004.

P. Vossen, EuroWordNet: Building a Multilingual Database with Wordnets for European Languages, The ELRA Newsletter, pp.7-10, 1998.

A. Burgun and O. Bodenreider, Comparing Terms, Concepts and Semantic Classes in Wordnet and the UMLS, Proceedings of the NAACL Workshop on WordNet and Other Lexical Resources, pp.77-82, 2001.

C. Fellbaum, U. Hahn, and B. Smith, Towards New Information Resources for Public Health--From Wordnet to MedicalWordNet, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp.321-332, 2006.

N. F. Noy and D. L. Mcguiness, Ontology Development 101 a Guide to Creating Your First Ontology, pp.1-25, 2001.

M. Huhns and L. Stevens, Personal Ontologies, IEEE Internet Computing, pp.85-87, 1999.

, IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology, 2002.

J. A. Bateman, R. Henschel, and F. Rinaldi, Generalized Upper Model 2.0: Documentation, ResearchGate, pp.1-8, 1995.

S. Beale, S. Nirenburg, and K. Mahesh, Semantic Analysis in the Mikrokosmos Machine Translation Project, Proceedings of Symposium on Natural Language Processing, pp.1-11, 1996.

D. B. Lenat and R. V. Guha, Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the Cyc Project, pp.95-104, 1993.

J. Chaffee and S. Gauch, Personal Ontologies for Web Navigation, CIKM '00: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp.227-234, 2000.

Y. Kalfoglou, J. Domingue, E. Motta, M. Vargas-vera, and S. B. Shum, Myplanet: an Ontology-Driven Web-Based Personalized News Service, Proceedings IJCAI 2001 workshop on Ontologies and Information Sharing, pp.1-10, 2001.

P. H. Winston, Artificial Intelligence, 1993.

M. Davies, Knowledge (explicit and implicit), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp.8126-8132, 2001.

M. Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension, 1966.

C. Mantzavinos, Individuals, Institutions and Markets, 2001.

C. Mantzavinos, D. C. North, and S. Shariq, Learning, Institutions and Economic Performance, Perspectives on Politics, pp.75-84, 2004.

M. A. Dummett, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics, The William James lectures, 1991.

D. C. Dennett, Styles of Mental Representation, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, pp.213-226, 1983.

J. A. Fodor, Psychosemantics: The Problem of Meaning in the Philosophy of Mind, 1983.

D. B. Lenat, R. Guha, K. Pittman, D. Pratt, and M. Shepherd, Cyc Toward Programs with Common Sense, Communications of the ACM, pp.30-49, 1990.

F. Koessler, Common Knowledge and Interactive Behaviors: A Survey, European Journal of Economic and Social Systems, pp.271-308, 2000.

R. Navigli, P. Velardi, and A. Gangemi, Ontology Learning and Its Application to Automated Terminology Translation, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.22-31, 2003.

R. J. Marzana, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools (Professional Development), 2004.

P. Vanderschraaf and G. Sillari, Common Knowledge, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005.

D. Lewis, Convention, a Philosophical Study, 1969.

H. H. Clark and C. R. Marshall, Definite Reference and Mutual Knowledge, Elements of Discourse Processing, pp.10-63, 1981.

K. C. Stevens, The Effect of Background Knowledge on the Reading Comprehension of Ninth Graders, Journal of Reading Behavior, pp.151-154, 1980.

F. Dochy, M. Segers, and M. M. Buehl, The Relation between Assessment Practices and Outcomes of Studies the Case of Research on Prior Knowledge, Review of Educational Research, pp.145-186, 1999.

C. Emmott, Narrative Comprehension a Discourse Perspective, 1999.

S. Thor, S. G. Anderson, A. Tomlinson, and J. B. Thomas, A Lim-Homeodomain Combinatorial Code for Motor-Neuron Pathway Selection, Nature, pp.76-80, 1997.

J. A. Langer, Examining Background Knowledge and Text Comprehension, Reading Research Quarterly, pp.468-481, 1984.

E. Agirre, O. Ansa, E. Hovy, and D. Martinez, Enriching Very Large Ontologies Using the WWW, ECAI Workshop on Ontology Learning and CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2000.

M. Banko and E. Brill, Scaling to Very Large Corpora for Natural Language Disambiguation, Proceedings of the 39 th Annual Meeting and 10 th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistic, pp.26-33, 2001.

J. Knowlson, Universal Language Schemes in England and France 1600-1800, 1975.

M. M. Slaughter, Universal Languages and Scientific Taxonomy in the Seventeenth Century, 1982.

R. Davis and D. Lenat, Knowledge-Based Systems in Artificial Intelligence: AM and Teiresias, 1982.

L. Eshelman, D. Ehret, J. Mcdermott, and M. Tan, MOLE: A Tenacious Knowledge Acquisition Tool, Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Expert Systems, vol.2, pp.41-54, 1987.

J. Diederich, I. Ruhmann, and M. May, KRITON: A Knowledge Acquisition Tool for Expert Systems, Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Expert Systems, vol.2, pp.29-40, 1987.

E. Motta, M. Eisenstadt, and K. Pitman, Support for Knowledge Acquisition in the Knowledge Engineer's Assistant (KEATS), Expert Systems, pp.6-28, 1988.

E. Motta, T. Rajan, J. Domingue, and M. Eisenstadt, Methodological Foundations of Keats, The Knowledge Engineer's Assistant, Current Trends in Knowledge Acquisition, pp.289-301, 1990.

M. L. Shaw and B. R. Gaines, KITTEN: Knowledge Initiation and Transfer Tools for Experts and Novices, Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Expert Systems, vol.2, pp.251-280, 1988.

U. Hahn, M. Klenner, and K. Schnattinger, Automated knowledge acquisition meets metareasoning: incremental quality assessment of concept hypotheses during text understanding, Proceedings of 9th European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop (EKAW-96), pp.131-146, 1996.

U. Hahn and K. Schnattinger, Towards Text Knowledge Engineering, Proc. 15 th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-98), pp.524-531, 1998.

M. Craven and J. Kumlien, Constructing Biological Knowledge Bases by Extracting Information from Text Sources, Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol, pp.77-86, 1999.

C. Friedman and G. Hripcsak, Natural Language Processing and Its Future in Medicine, Acad Med, pp.890-895, 1999.

P. Spyns, Natural Language Processing in Medicine: An Overview, Methods Inf Med, pp.285-301, 1996.

R. Basili, M. T. Pazienzaa, and P. Velardib, An Empirical Symbolic Approach to Natural Language Processing, pp.59-99, 1996.

S. B. Johnson, A. Aguirre, P. Peng, and J. Cimino, Interpreting Natural Language Queries using the UMLS, Proceeding of Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care, pp.294-298, 1993.

R. Grishman, S. Huttunen, and R. Yangarber, Information Extraction for Enhanced Access to Disease Outbreak Reports, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp.236-282, 2002.

T. C. Rindflesch and M. Fiszman, The Interaction of Domain Knowledge and Linguistic Structure in Natural Language Processing: Interpreting Hypernymic Propositions in Biomedical Text, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, pp.462-477, 2003.

M. K. Bergman, The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value, The Journal of Electronic Publishing, pp.1-7, 2001.

A. Wright, Search of the Deep Web, 2015.

P. R. Bowden, P. Halstead, and T. G. Rose, Extracting Conceptual Knowledge from Text Using Explicit Relation Markers, Proceeding 9 th European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.147-162, 1996.

U. Reimer, Automatic Acquisition of Terminological Knowledge from Texts, Proc. 9 th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI-90), pp.547-549, 1990.

U. Reimer, Automatic Knowledge Acquisition from Texts: Learning Terminological Knowledge via Text Understanding and Inductive Generalization, KAW'90 -Proc. of the Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems, pp.1-16, 1990.

U. Hahn and K. Schnattinger, An Empirical Evaluation of a System for Text Knowledge Acquisition, Proceeding of European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.129-144, 1997.

R. Hull and F. Gomez, Automatic Acquisition of Historical Knowledge from Encyclopedic Texts, Proc. Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.1-18, 1998.

M. Lebowitz, The Use of Memory in Text Processing, Communications of the ACM, pp.1483-1502, 1988.

M. Lebowitz, Researcher: An Overview, Proc. National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.232-235, 1983.

A. Goel, K. Mahesh, J. Peterson, and K. Eiselt, Unification of Language Understanding, Device Comprehension and Knowledge Acquisition, Proceeding of 10 th Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.1-5, 1996.

M. Lebowitz, Generalization from Natural Language Text, Cognitive Science, pp.1-40, 1983.

D. Faure and C. Nédellec, Knowledge Acquisition of Predicate Argument Structures from Technical Texts Using Machine Learning: The System ASIUM, Proceedings of the 11 th European Workshop, pp.329-334, 1999.

G. De-chalendar and B. Grau, SVETLAN' or How to Classify Words Using Their Context, Proceedings of the 12 th European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.203-216, 2000.

J. F. Delannoy, C. Feng, S. Matwin, and S. Szpakowicz, Knowledge Extraction from Text: Machine Learning For Text-To-Rule Translation, Proceeding of the Workshop on Machine Learning Techniques and Text Analysis, European Conference on Machine Learning, pp.1-157, 1993.

S. Lapalut, Text Clustering to Help Knowledge Acquisition from Documents, Proc. Ninth European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop (EKAW-96), pp.115-130, 1996.

S. Lapalut, How to Handle Multiple Expertises from Several Experts: A General Text Clustering Approach, Proc. 2 nd Knowledge Engineering Forum (KEF'96), pp.1-6, 1996.

S. Szpakowicz, Semi-Automatic Acquisition of Conceptual Structure from Technical Texts, International Journal of Man-machine Studies, pp.385-397, 1990.

B. Biébow and S. Szulman, Acquisition and Validation: From Text to Semantic Network, Proceeding of 7 th European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop-EKAW-93, pp.427-446, 1993.

B. Biébow and S. Szulman, TERMINAE: A Linguistic-Based Tool for the Building of Domain Ontology, Proc. 11 th European Workshop, pp.49-66, 1999.

R. Lu and C. Cao, Towards Knowledge Acquisition from Texts, Current Trends in Knowledge Acquisition, pp.289-301, 1990.

A. Mikheev and S. Finch, A Workbench for Acquisition of Ontological Knowledge from Natural Text, Proceedings of the 7 th conference of the European Chapter for Computational Linguistics (EACL'95), pp.194-201, 1995.

N. Aussenac-gilles, B. Biebow, and S. Szulman, Revisiting Ontology Design: A Methodology Based On Corpus Analysis, Proc. Twelfth European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop (EKAW-2000), pp.172-188, 2000.

D. R. Swanson and N. R. Smalheiser, An Interactive System for Finding Complementary Literatures: a Stimulus to Scientific Discovery, Artificial Intelligence, pp.183-203, 1997.

P. Spyns, Natural Language Processing in Medicine: An Overview, Methods Inf Med, pp.285-301, 1996.

R. Baud, C. Lovis, A. M. Rassinoux, and J. R. Scherrer, Alternative Ways for Knowledge Collection, Indexing and Robust Language Retrieval, Methods Inf Med, pp.315-326, 1998.

B. L. Humphreys, D. A. Lindberg, H. M. Schoolman, and G. O. Barnett, The Unified Medical Language System: Informatics Research Collaboration, J Am Med Inform Assoc, pp.1-11, 1998.

M. B. Amaral, A. Roberts, and A. L. Rector, NLP Techniques Associated with the OpenGALEN Ontology for Semi-Automatic Textual Extraction of Medical Knowledge: Abstracting and Mapping Equivalent Linguistic and Logistic Constructs, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.76-80, 2000.

C. Friedman, P. O. Alderson, J. H. Austin, J. J. Cimino, and S. B. Johnson, A General Natural-Language Text Processor for Clinical Radiology, J Am Med Inform Assoc, pp.161-74, 1994.

C. Friedman, A Broad-Coverage Natural Language Processing System, Proc AMIA, pp.270-274, 2000.

C. Friedman, H. Liu, L. Shagina, S. Johnson, and G. Hripcsak, Evaluating the UMLS as A Source of Lexical Knowledge for Medical Language Processing, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.189-193, 2001.

C. A. Knirsch, N. L. Jain, A. Pablos-mendez, C. Friedman, and G. Hripcsak, Respiratory Isolation of Tuberculosis Patients Using Clinical Guidelines and an Automated Clinical Decision Support System, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, pp.94-100, 1998.

A. Rassinoux, J. C. Wagnerl, C. Lovis1, R. H. Baud1, A. Rector et al., Analysis of Medical Texts Based On a Sound Medical Model, Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care, pp.27-31, 1995.

A. L. Rector and W. A. Nowlan, The GALEN Project, Comput Methods Programs Biomed, pp.75-83, 1994.

P. Haug, S. Koehler, L. M. Lau, P. Wang, R. Rocha et al., A Natural Language Understanding System Combining Syntactic and Semantic Techniques, Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care, pp.247-51, 1994.

B. Rosario, M. A. Hearst, and C. Fillmore, The Descent of Hierarchy and Selection in Relational Semantics, Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Language Processing in the Biomedical Domain, pp.247-254, 2002.

M. Fiszman, W. W. Chapman, D. Aronsky, R. S. Evans, and P. J. Haug, Automatic Detection of Acute Bacterial Pneumonia from Chest X-Ray Reports, J Am Med Inform Assoc, pp.593-604, 2000.

M. Fiszman and P. J. Haug, Using Medical Language Processing to Support Real-Time Evaluation of Pneumonia Guidelines, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.235-239, 2000.

M. L. Gundersena, P. J. Hauga, T. A. Pryora, R. V. Breea, S. Koehlerb et al., Development and Evaluation of a Computerized Admission Diagnoses Encoding System, Comput Biomed Res, pp.351-372, 1996.

L. M. Christensen, P. J. Haug, and M. Fiszman, MPLUS: A Probabilistic Medical Language Understanding System, Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Language Processing in the Biomedical Domain, pp.29-36, 2002.

P. Zweigenbaum, B. Bachimont, J. Bouaud, J. Charlet, and J. F. Boisvieux, A Multi-Lingual Architecture for Building a Normalized Conceptual Representation from Medical Language, Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care, pp.357-361, 1995.

P. Zweigenbaum, J. Bouaud, B. Bachimont, J. Charlet, and J. F. Boisvieux, Evaluating a Normalized Conceptual Representation Produced from Natural Language Patient Discharge Summaries, Proc AMIA Annu Fall Symp, pp.590-594, 1997.

U. Hahn, M. Romacker, and S. Schulz, How Knowledge Drives Understanding-Matching Medical Ontologies with the Needs of Medical Language Processing, Artif Intell Med, pp.25-51, 1999.

U. Hahn, M. Romacker, and S. Schulz, MEDSYNDIKATE-Design Considerations for an Ontology-Based Medical Text Understanding System, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.330-334, 2000.

M. Romacker, S. Schulz, and U. Hahn, Streamlining Semantic Interpretation for Medical Narratives, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.925-929, 1999.

A. Aronson, Effective Mapping of Biomedical Texts to the UMLS Metathesaraus: The MetaMap Program, Proceeding of AMIA Symposium, pp.17-21, 2001.

T. C. Rindflesch, C. A. Bean, and C. A. Sneiderman, Argument Identification for Arterial Branching Predications Asserted in Cardiac Catheterization Reports, Proc AMIA Symp, pp.704-708, 2000.

T. C. Rindflesch, L. Tanabe, and J. N. Weinstein, EDGAR: Extraction of Drugs, Genes and Relations from the Biomedical Literature, Pac Symp Biocomputing, pp.517-528, 2000.

T. C. Rindflesch, J. V. Rajan, and L. Hunter, Extracting Molecular Binding Relationships from Biomedical Text, Proceedings of the 6 th Applied Natural Language Processing Conference, pp.188-195, 2000.

D. Cutting, J. Kupiec, J. Pedersen, and P. Sibun, A Practical Part-Of-Speech Tagger, Proceedings of the Third Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, pp.133-140, 2002.

P. M. Kamde and S. P. Algur, A Survey on Web Multimedia Mining, The International Journal of Multimedia & Its Applications (IJMA), pp.72-84, 2011.

P. Mishra, N. Padhy, and R. Panigrahi, The Survey of Data Mining Applications and Feature Scope, International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology, pp.43-58, 2012.

R. J. Mooney and R. Bunescu, Mining Knowledge from Text Using Information Extraction, SIGKDD Explorations, pp.3-10, 2005.

S. R. Bhat, A. K. Tripathy, D. George, R. Jose, and R. Pinto, Advanced Knowledge Extraction from WebPages Using Natural language Processing, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, pp.96-101, 2012.

S. Jusoh and H. M. Alfawareh, Techniques, Applications and Challenging Issue in Text-Mining, IJCSI International Journal Computer Science Issues, pp.431-436, 2012.

D. C. Wimalasuriya and D. Dou, Ontology-Based Information Extraction: An Introduction and a Survey of Current Approaches, Journal of Information Science, pp.306-323, 2010.

T. Ah-hwee, Text Mining: The State of Art and the Challenges, proceedings PAKDD'99 Workshop on Knowledge discovery from Advanced Databases, pp.71-76, 1999.

C. Chang, M. Kayed, M. R. Girgis, and K. Shaalan, A Survey of Web Information Extraction Systems, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, pp.1-18, 2006.

F. Pugeault, Knowledge Extraction from Texts: Method for Extracting Predicate-Argument Structures from Texts, IRIT-CNRS, pp.1039-1043, 1994.

D. Consoli, A New Framework to Extract Knowledge by Text Mining Tools, The Journal of Knowledge Economy & Knowledge Management, pp.165-177, 2010.

J. Cimino and G. Barnett, Automatic Knowledge Acquisition from MEDLINE, Methods of Information in Medicine, pp.120-130, 1993.

H. Dai, Y. Chang, R. T. Tsai, and W. Hsu, New Challenges for Biological Text-Mining in the Next Decade, Journal of Computer Science and Technology, pp.169-179, 2010.

G. Mariscal, Ó. Marbán, and C. Fernández, A Survey of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Process Models and Methodologies, The Knowledge Engineering Review, pp.137-166, 2010.

P. D. Turney, Mining the Web for Synonyms: PMI-IR versus LSA on TOEFL, Proceedings of the 12 th European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML), pp.491-502, 2001.

M. F. Moens, Information Extraction: Algorithms and Prospects in Retrieval Context, The Information Retrieval Series, pp.1-4, 2006.

E. Riloff, Automatically Constructing a Dictionary for Information Extraction Tasks, Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.811-816, 1993.

A. M. Harabagiu and S. Maiorano, Acquisition of Linguistic Patterns for Knowledge-Based Information Extraction, In IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, pp.713-724, 1995.

E. Agichtein and L. Gravano, Snowball: Extracting Relations from Large Plain-Text Collections, Proceedings of the 5 th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries, pp.1-10, 2000.

A. Maedche, G. Neumann, and S. Staab, Bootstrapping an Ontology-Based Information Extraction System, studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, pp.1-25, 2002.

L. K. Mcdowell1 and M. Cafarella, Ontology-Driven Information Extraction with OntoSyphon, International Semantic Web Conference, pp.428-444, 2006.

J. Aitken, Learning Information Extraction Rules: An Inductive Logic Programming approach, Proceedings of the 15 th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.355-359, 2002.

B. Yildiz and S. Miksch, OntoX -A Method for Ontology-Driven Information Extraction, ICCSA, pp.660-673, 2007.

C. Biemann, Ontology Learning from Text: A Survey of Methods, LDV Forum, vol.20, pp.75-93, 2005.

M. A. Hearst, Automated Discovery of Wordnet Relations, WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, vol.2, 1998.

P. Cimiano and J. Volker, Towards Large-Scale, Open-Domain and Ontology-Based Named Entity Classification, Proceedings of Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, pp.166-172, 2005.

H. Tanev and B. Magnini, Weakly Supervised Approaches for Ontology Population, EACL the Association for Computer Linguistics, pp.17-24, 2006.

M. Fleischman, Fine Grained Classification of Named Entities, Proceedings of the 19 th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp.1-7, 2002.

Y. Li, K. Bontcheva, and H. Cunningham, SVM Based Learning System for Information Extraction, Deterministic and Statistical Methods in Machine Learning, pp.319-339, 2005.

M. Minsky, A Framework for Representing Knowledge, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974.

J. Aikins, A Representation Scheme Using both Frames and Rules, Rule-Based Expert Systems, pp.424-440, 1984.

P. J. Brachman, What IS-A is and isn't: An Analysis of Taxonomic Links in Semantic Networks, Computer, vol.16, pp.30-36, 1983.

D. G. Bobrow and T. Winograd, An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language, Cognitive Science, pp.3-46, 1977.

S. Russell and P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence -A Modern Approach, 1995.

P. Brachman and J. Schmolze, Overview of KL-ONE knowledge Representation System, Cognitive Science, pp.171-216, 1985.

F. Baader, D. Calvanese, D. L. Mcguinness, D. Nardi, and P. F. Patel-schneider, The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation and Application, 2010.

B. Motik and B. Parsia, OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Structural Specification and Functional-Style Syntax, 2012.

I. Horrocks, P. F. Patel-schneider, and F. V. Harmelen, From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: The Making of a Web Ontology Language, Journal of Web Semantics, pp.7-26, 2003.

V. Haarslev and R. Möller, RACER System Description, Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on Automated Reasoning, pp.701-705, 2001.

I. Horrocks, U. Sattler, and S. Tobies, Practical Reasoning for Very Expressive Description Logics, Journal of the Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logic, pp.239-264, 2000.

E. Sirin, B. Parsia, B. C. Grau, A. Kalyanpur, and Y. Katz, Pellet: An OWL DL Reasoner, Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, pp.51-53, 2007.

D. Tsarkov and I. Horrocks, Fact++ Description Logic Reasoner: System Description, Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on Automated Reasoning (IJCAR, pp.292-297, 2006.

R. Stevens, I. Horrocks, C. Goble, and S. Bechhofer, Building a Reasonable Bioinformatics Ontology Using OIL, Proceedings of the IJCAI-2001 Workshop on Ontologies and Information Sharing, pp.81-90, 2001.

A. Gómez-pérez, Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases, Proceedings of the 12 th Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop, pp.1-19, 1999.

A. Gómez-pérez, Some Ideas and Examples to Evaluate Ontologies, Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications, pp.299-305, 1995.

A. Gómez-pérez, Ontology Evaluation, International Handbooks on Information Systems, pp.251-274, 2004.

Y. Sure, Why Evaluate Ontology Technologies? Because It Works!, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.1541-1672, 2004.

N. Noy, Evaluation by Ontology Consumers, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.1541-1672, 2004.

J. Hartmann, P. Spyns, A. Giboin, D. Maynard, R. Cuel et al., Methods for Ontology Evaluation, 2004.

A. Lozano-tello and A. Gómez-pérez, ONTOMETRIC: A Method to Choose the Appropriate Ontology, Journal of Database Management (JDM), pp.1-43, 2004.

H. Yao, A. M. Orme, and L. Etzkorn, Cohesion Metrics for Ontology Design and Application, Journal of Computer Science, pp.107-113, 2005.

C. Welty and N. Guarino, Supporting Ontological Analysis of Taxonomic Relationships, Data and Knowledge Engineering, pp.51-74, 2001.

P. Spyns, EvaLexon: Assessing Triples Mined from Texts, Semantic technology and Research Lab, 2005.

R. Porzel and R. Malaka, A Task-Based Approach for Ontology Evaluation, Proceeding of ECAI, pp.1-11, 2004.

W. Daelemans and M. L. Reinberger, Shallow Text Understanding for Ontology Content Evaluation, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.1541-1672, 2004.

A. Gangemi, C. Catenacci, M. Ciaramita, and J. Lehmann, Modeling Ontology Evaluation and Validation, Proceedings of the 3 rd European Semantic Web Conference, pp.140-154, 2006.

M. Ashburner, C. A. Ball, J. A. Blake, D. Botstein, H. Butler et al., Gene Ontology: Tool for the Unification of Biology, pp.25-29, 2000.

S. C. Lam, D. Sleeman, and W. Vasconcelos, ReTAX+: A Cooperative Taxonomy Revision Tool, Proceedings of AI-2004 Conference, pp.64-77, 2004.

H. Knublauch, R. W. Fergerson, N. F. Noy, and M. A. Musen, The Protégé OWL Plugins: An Open Development Environment for Semantic Web Applications, the Semantic Web -ISWC, pp.229-243, 2004.

E. Sirin, B. Parsia, B. C. Grau, A. Kalyanpur, and Y. Katz, Pellet: An OWL DL Reasoner, Description Logics, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp.1-26, 2004.

H. Alani, S. Harris, and B. O'neil, Ontology Winnowing: A Case Study on the AKT Reference Ontology, Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technology and Internet Commerce-IAWTIC'2005, pp.185-199, 2005.

H. Alani, S. Harris, and B. O'neil, Winnowing Ontologies Based On Application Use, Proceedings of 3 rd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), pp.1-6, 2006.

N. Guarino and C. Welty, Evaluating Ontological Decisions with OntoClean, Commun. ACM, pp.61-65, 2002.

A. Gangemi, N. Guarino, and A. Oltramari, Conceptual Analysis of Lexical Taxonomies the Case of Wordnet Top-Level, Proceedings of the International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, pp.285-296, 2001.

A. Oltramari, A. Gangemi, N. Guarino, and C. Masolo, Restructuring WordNets Top Level: The OntoClean approach, Proceedings of the Workshop OntoLex, Ontologies and Lexical Knowledge Bases, pp.1-10, 2002.

Y. Wilks, Ontotherapy or How to Stop Worrying about What There Is, Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, pp.1-18, 2002.

L. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, 1953.

W. V. Quine, Two Dogmas of Empiricism, The Philosophical Review, pp.20-43, 1951.

H. Putnam, Is Semantics Possible?, Meta-philosophy, pp.187-201, 1970.

I. R. Horrocks, Using Expressive Description Logic: Fact or Fiction, Proceedings of the 6 th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-98), pp.636-649, 1998.

V. Haarslev and R. Möller, Description of the Racer System and Its Applications, pp.1-10, 2001.

J. S. Luciano, PAX of Mind for Pathway Researchers, Drug Discovery Today, pp.937-942, 2005.

R. Davis, H. Shrobe, and P. Szolovits, What Is a Knowledge Representation, AI Magazine, pp.17-33, 1993.

C. Brewster, O. Iria, F. Ciravegna, and Y. Wilks, The ontology: Chimaera or Pegasus, Proceedings of the Dagstuhl Seminar Machine Learning for the Semantic Web, pp.1-6, 2005.

P. Velardi, R. Navigli, A. Cucchiarelli, and F. Neri, Evaluation of Ontolearn: a Methodology for Automatic Learning of Domain Ontologies, pp.1-6, 2003.

G. Grefenstette, The World Wide Web as a Resource for Example-Based Machine Translation Tasks, Proceedings of the 21 st International Conference on Translating and the Computer, vol.21, pp.1-12, 1999.

R. Porzel and R. Malaka, A Task-Based Framework for Ontology Learning, Population and Evaluation, Ontology Learning from Text: Methods, Evaluation and Applications Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications Series, pp.107-177, 2005.

W. Wahlster, Smartkom: Symetric Multimodality in an Adaptive and Reusable Dialog Shell, Proceedings of the Human Computer Interaction Status Conference, pp.47-62, 2003.

G. Grefenstette, Explorations in Automatic Thesaurus Discovery, 1994.

C. Brewster, H. Alani, and A. Dasmahapatra, Data Driven Ontology Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-04), pp.1-4, 2004.

J. Brank, D. Mladeni?, and M. Grobelnik, Golden Standard Based Ontology Evaluation Using Instance Assignment, Proc. of The Eon, pp.1-8, 2006.

G. Grefenstette, Evaluation Techniques for Automatic Semantic Extraction: Comparing Syntactic and Window Based Approaches, Proceedings of a Workshop Sponsored by the Special Interest Group on the Lexicon of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp.1-12, 1993.

A. Maedche and S. Staab, Ontology Learning, Handbook on Ontologies, 2004.

K. Dellschaft and S. Staab, On How to Perform a Gold Standard Based Evaluation of Ontology Learning, pp.228-241, 2006.

W. M. Rand, Objective Criteria for the Evaluation of Clustering Methods, Journal of the American Statistical Association, pp.846-850, 1971.

M. Gruninger and M. S. Fox, Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Ontologies, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI95), Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, pp.1-10, 1995.

L. Obrst, W. Ceusters, I. Mani, S. Ray, and B. Smith, The Evaluation of Ontologies, Revolutionizing Knowledge Discovery in the Life Sciences, pp.139-158, 2007.

K. Supekar, A Peer-Review Approach for Ontology Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Protégé Conference, pp.1-5, 2005.

M. S. Fox, M. Barbuceanu, M. Gruninger, and J. Lin, Simulating organizations: Computational Models of Institutions and Groups, pp.131-152, 1998.

A. G´omez-p´erez, Towards a Framework to Verify Knowledge Sharing Technology, Expert Systems with Applications, pp.519-529, 1996.

K. W. Fung and O. Bodenreider, Knowledge Representation and Ontologies, Clinical Research Informatics, pp.255-275, 2012.

G. Palermo, The Ontology of Economic Power in Capitalism: Mainstream Economics and Marx, Cambridge Journal of Economics, pp.539-561, 2007.

G. L. Zuniga, Ontology of Economic Objects, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, pp.299-312, 1999.

L. Zhou, Ontology Learning: State Of The Art and Open Issues, pp.241-252, 2007.

A. Lozano-tello, A. Gómez-pérez, and E. Sosa, Selection of Ontologies for the Semantic Web, pp.414-416, 2004.

R. Witte, Flexible Ontology Population from Text: The OwlExporter, Int. Conf. on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp.3845-3850, 2010.

M. Hazman, S. R. El-beltagy, and A. Rafea, A Survey of Ontology Learning Approaches, International Journal of Computer Applications, pp.975-8887, 2011.

A. Maedche and S. Staab, Semi-automatic Engineering of Ontologies from Text, Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, pp.1-8, 2000.

M. Atzmueller, P. Kluegl, and F. Puppe, Rule-Based Information Extraction for Structured Data Acquisition using TextMarker, Proc. of the LWA-2008 (KDML Track), pp.1-7, 2008.

M. E. Califf and R. J. Mooney, Bottom-up Relational Learning of Pattern Matching Rules for Information Extraction, Journal of Machine Learning Research, pp.177-210, 2003.

P. Kluegl, M. Atzmueller, T. Hermann, and F. Puppe, A Framework for Semi-Automatic Development of Rule-based Information Extraction Applications, Track on Knowledge Discovery and Machine Learning, pp.56-59, 2009.

T. S. Kuhn, The Essential Tension: Tradition and Innovation in Scientific Research?" in the Essential Tension, 1977.

L. Chiticariu, Rule-Based Information Extraction Is Dead! Long Live Rule-Based Information Extraction System, Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical methods in natural language Processing, pp.827-832, 2013.

J. Zhu, Z. Nie, X. Liu, B. Zhang, and J. Wen, StatSnowball: a Statistical Approach to Extracting Entity Relationships, pp.101-110, 2009.

Y. Yan, N. Okazaki, Y. Matsuo, Z. Yang, and M. Ishizuka, Unsupervised Relation Extraction by Mining Wikipedia Texts Using Information from the Web, Proceeding of the 47 th Annual meeting of the ACL and the 4 th IJCNLP of the AFNLP, pp.1021-1029, 2009.

G. Hripcsak, C. Friedman, P. O. Alderson, W. Dumouchel, S. B. Johnson et al.,

C. , Unlocking Clinical Data from Narrative Reports: A Study of Natural Language Processing, Ann Intern Med, pp.681-688, 1995.

R. Yangarber and R. Grishman, Machine Learning of Extraction Patterns from Annotated Corpora: Position Statement, Proceedings of Workshop on Machine learning in Information Extraction, pp.76-83, 2001.

A. Jimeno-yepes and A. A. Aronson, Knowledge-based and Knowledge-lean Methods Combined in Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation, IHI '12 Proceedings of the 2 nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, pp.733-736, 2012.

B. T. Mcinnes, Supervised and Knowledge-based Methods for Disambiguating Terms in Biomedical Text using the UMLS and MetaMap, PhD Dissertation, 2009.

A. M¨adche and R. Volz, The Text-To-Onto Ontology Extraction and Maintenance System, Workshop on Integrating Data Mining and Knowledge Management, collocated with the 1 st International Conference on Data Mining, pp.1-5, 2001.

E. Bozsak, M. Ehrig, S. Handschuh, A. Hotho, A. Maedche et al.,

G. Schmitz, Y. Stumme, J. Sure, R. Tane, V. Volz et al.,

, Large Scale Semantic Web, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on E-Commerce and Web Technologies, pp.304-313, 2002.

P. Cimiano and J. V¨olker, Text2onto -A Framework for Ontology Learning and Data-Driven Change Discovery, Proceedings of the 10 th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB), pp.227-238, 2005.

P. Buitelaar, D. Olejnik, and M. Sintek, A Protégé Plug-In for Ontology Extraction from Text Based on Linguistic Analysis, Proceedings of the 1 st European Semantic Web Symposium (ESWS), pp.31-44, 2004.

C. Biemann, Ontology Learning from Text: A Survey of Methods, LDV Forum, pp.75-93, 2005.

M. Y. Dahaba, H. A. Hassanb, and A. Rafeab, TextOntoEx: Automatic Ontology Construction from Natural English Text, Expert Systems with Applications, pp.1474-1480, 2008.

C. Brewster and K. O'hara, Knowledge Representation with Ontologies: The Present and Future, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.72-81, 2004.

M. Missikoff, The Usable Ontology: An Environment for Building and Assessing Domain Ontology, pp.39-53, 2002.

P. Suraweera, A. Mitrovic, and B. Martin, Widening the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck for Constraint-based Tutors, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp.137-173, 2010.

R. Navigli and P. Velardi, Learning Domain Ontologies from Document Warehouses and Dedicated Websites, Computational Linguistics, pp.151-179, 2004.

R. Serban, A. T. Teije, F. V. Harmelen, M. Marcos, and C. Polo-conde, Extraction and Use of Linguistic Patterns for Modeling Medical Guidelines, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, pp.137-149, 2007.

S. Sahay, B. Li, E. V. Garcia, E. Agichtein, and A. Ram, Domain Ontology Construction from Biomedical Text, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.1-7, 2007.

S. Wu and W. Hsu, SOAT A Semi-Automatic Domain Ontology Acquisition Tool from Chinese Corpus, Proceedings of the 19 th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp.1-5, 2002.

X. Jiang and A. Tan, CRCTOL: A Semantic-Based Domain Ontology Learning System, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, pp.150-168, 2010.

A. T. Mccray, Upper-Level Ontology for the Biomedical Domain, Comparative and Functional Genomics, pp.80-84, 2003.

A. Burgun and O. Bodenreider, Mapping the UMLS Semantic Network into General Ontologies, Proceedings of AMIA Annual Symposium, pp.86-90, 2001.

P. Cimiano, A. Pivk, L. Schmidt-thieme, and S. Staab, Learning Taxonomic Relations from Heterogeneous Sources of Evidence, Ontology Learning from Text: Methods, Evaluation and Applications, pp.1-6, 2005.

L. Smith, T. Rindflesch, and W. J. Wilbur, MedPost: a Part-Of-Speech Tagger for Biomedical Text, Bioinformatics, pp.2320-2321, 2004.

A. T. Mccray, S. Srinivasan, and A. C. Browne, Lexical Methods for Managing Variation in Biomedical Terminologies, Proc 18 th SCAMC, pp.235-239, 1994.

D. L. Mcguinness and F. V. Harmelen, OWL Web Ontology Language Overview, W3C Recommendation, 2009.

D. Vrandecic, Ontology Evaluation, Handbook on Ontologies, pp.293-313, 2009.

N. Guarino, Toward a Formal Evaluation of Ontology Quality, IEEE Intelligent Systems, pp.78-79, 2004.

L. Al-safadi, R. Alomran, and F. Almutairi, Evaluation of MetaMap Performance in Radiographic Images Retrieval, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, pp.4231-4236, 2013.

H. Zhang, Y. Li, and H. B. Tan, Measuring Design Complexity of Semantic Web Ontologies, The Journal of Systems and Software, pp.803-814, 2010.

M. A. Sicilia, D. Rodr?guez, E. Garc?a-barriocanal, and S. S?nchez-alonso, Empirical Findings on Ontology Metrics, pp.6706-6711, 2012.

M. Poprat, E. Beisswanger, and U. Hahn, Building a BIOWORDNET by Using WORDNET's Data Formats and WORDNET's Software Infrastructure -A Failure Story, Software Engineering, Testing and Quality Assurance for Natural Language Processing, pp.31-39, 2008.

H. Hlomani and D. Stacey, Approaches, methods, metrics, measures, and subjectivity in ontology evaluation: A survey, pp.1-11, 2014.

G. Bisson, C. Nedellec, and L. Canamero, Designing Clustering Methods for Ontology Building -The Mo'K Workbench, Proceedings of the ECAI Ontology Learning Workshop, pp.13-19, 2000.

A. T. Mccray, A. R. Aronson, A. C. Browne, T. C. Rindflesch, A. Razi et al., UMLS Knowledge for Biomedical Language Processing, Journal of medical Library of Associations, pp.184-194, 1993.

F. Corcoglioniti, M. Rospocher, A. P. Aprosio, and F. B. Kessler, 2-phase Frame-based Knowledge Extraction Framework, SAC '16 Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp.354-361, 2016.

D. Ayele, C. Chevallet, M. Meshesha, and G. Mitikie, Constructing Reference Semantic Predictions from Biomedical Knowledge Sources, Proceedings of COLING 2012: Technical Papers, pp.133-148, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01954361

D. Ayele, C. Chevallet, M. Meshesha, and G. Mitikie, all sources of material used for the dissertation have been duly acknowledge. Demeke Asres Ayele As an advisor and co-advisors, MEDES '12 Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital Ecosystems, pp.59-66, 2012.

J. Chevallet, Prof) Million Meshesha (PhD) Getnet Mitikie