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Reprogrammation métabolique des carcinomes hépatocellulaires présentant une activation aberrante de la beta-caténine

Abstract : Cancer cells are characterized by uncontrolled and rapid proliferation requiring metabolic adjustments to provide macromolecules and energy to fuel cell growth and division. Most tumors are characterized by a “Warburg effect” consisting in an addiction to glucose, at the basis for detecting them by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Twenty to 40% of Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are caused by activating mutations in the CTNNB1 gene coding for β-catenin. They present a specific metabolic phenotype as they are cholestatic and never steatotic. But our group has observed that β-catenin activated livers were negative in FDG-PET imaging, indicating that they do not have an increased glucose consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic alterations leading to this distinctive metabolic phenotype in HCC where β-catenin is over-activated.In a mouse model, we have either activated constitutively β-catenin in the whole hepatic lobule to mimic a “preneoplasic” situation or we have abnormally activated β-catenin in few hepatocytes that will then generate tumors after 6 months. Using these two approaches, we analyzed metabolic fluxes to determine the carbon fate from different potential substrates in order to identify the source of energy and cellular components of β-catenin activated hepatocytes or tumors.Our results confirm the absence of a Warburg effect in β-catenin overactivated hepatocytes with no difference in glycolysis nor in lactate production. However, glucose is rerouted into glutamine overproduction and this glutamine is not reused in the Krebs cycle. These hepatocytes also show a decreased lipogenesis with a rerouting of neo-synthetized fatty acids into phospholipids.On the other hand, both the preneoplasic and the tumoral models displayed a sharp increase in fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. We did not find this in HCC with no β-catenin activation, showing that this increased fatty acid oxidation is specific to β-catenin dependent metabolic reprogramming.Strikingly, β-catenin activation in the β-oxidation defective mouse model, does not lead to tumor development. The increased fatty oxidation observed in the β-catenin activated models is mandatory for β-catenin dependent tumorigenesis. We thus propose that lipids are the main source of energy that fuels β-catenin tumors. These results pave the way for treatments against β-catenin activated HCC by targeting fatty acid oxidation.
Keywords : Liver Metabolism Cancer
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Nadia Senni. Reprogrammation métabolique des carcinomes hépatocellulaires présentant une activation aberrante de la beta-caténine. Cancer. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS075⟩. ⟨tel-02087293v2⟩

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