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Theses

Pronostic du patient neutropénique admis en réanimation

Abstract : The short-term prognosis of patients with onco-hematological diseases and neutropenia admitted to intensive care has significantly improved over the last two decades. This progress is the fact of a significant diversification of the armamentarium on oncology and hematology but also a better management of these patients in the ICUs. Our research has focused on the outcome of these patients and its prognostic factors. In this context, we have conducted several prognostic observational studies of neutropenic patients admitted to intensive care units. We showed that factors independently associated with hospital mortality were the bone marrow transplantation, the use of invasive mechanical ventilation, the use of renal replacement therapy and a positive microbiological documentation. Moreover, in neutropenic patients admitted to intensive care for severe sepsis / septic shock, factors independently associated with ICU mortality were inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy, a delay of antibiotic treatment > 1h, a positive microbiological documentation with non-fermenting gram negative bacilli, a high SOFA score on admission in ICU. The de-escalation of initial antibiotic treatment feasible in 44% of cases had no significant impact on the short and long-term outcomes. Otherwise, in neutropenic patients admitted to intensive care for acute respiratory failure, the only independent factor associated with hospital mortality was the need for mechanical ventilation, while the use of corticosteroids in the days before ICU admission and a admission during neutropenia recovery period were protective. Finally, we have shown in a recent review of the literature that the outcome of hematology-oncology patient admitted to intensive care had improved over time and that neutropenia did not seem to be a prognostic factor in this context. In conclusion, we have shown that the neutropenic patient is at high risk of severe infectious,respiratory and immunological complications. These complications significantly impact the outcome of these patients. Our results could lead to the planning of several randomized trials in neutropenic patients admitted to intensive care in particular about the escalation antibiotic in sepsis and oxygentherapy strategies for respiratory distress.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02083657
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  • HAL Id : tel-02083657, version 1

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Djamel Mokart. Pronostic du patient neutropénique admis en réanimation. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCC317⟩. ⟨tel-02083657⟩

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