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Conséquences d’une exposition chronique à des doses modérées de cadmium sur le métabolisme du glucose de rats à différents stades de la vie

Abstract : The exposure to environmental pollutants is considered one of the factors that could explain the exponential increase in metabolic illnesses worldwide. Among these pollutants, many epidemiological studies suggest a link between Cadmium (Cd) exposure and the occurrence and severity of diabetes, although the subject remains controversial. Experimental work on animals shows that exposure to Cd induces various effects on glucose metabolism. However, these studies were performed with relatively high doses of Cd and with unrealistic exposure models. In addition, very little data are available on the effect of maternal exposure and effect on descendants. The aim of this work was to study possible alterations in glucose metabolism after oral exposure to low doses of Cd in adult rats as well as in young rats exposed via their mothers. Results show that when exposed to Cd levels close to no-observed-effect reference values in rats, female rats show disturbances in plasma insulin level and a slight decrease in insulin sensitivity. These diabetogenic effects are not found in male rats. The results of the second study indicate that maternal exposure to Cd during pregnancy and lactation induces early metabolic changes in the offspring, 21, 26 and 60 days after birth. At 21 days, glucose tolerance is altered. At 26 days, the peripheral insulin sensitivity is transiently restored but the pancreatic function is impacted. Finally, at 60 days, the lack of insulin sensitivity is compensated by increased secretion. This work demonstrates the effects of low doses of Cd on glucose metabolism and reinforces the idea that the perinatal environment, in particular exposure to pollutants, affects the health of offspring in the long term. Beyond these results, this work allows the reader to reflect on the interest and difficulty of setting up relevant experimental animal models, in order to tackle the issue of risk assessment of chronic Cd exposure.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02083357
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Submitted on : Monday, May 13, 2019 - 9:16:10 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 7, 2020 - 1:10:12 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, October 2, 2019 - 11:57:18 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02083357, version 2

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Adeline Jacquet. Conséquences d’une exposition chronique à des doses modérées de cadmium sur le métabolisme du glucose de rats à différents stades de la vie. Chimie inorganique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV051⟩. ⟨tel-02083357v2⟩

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