Interaction entre défaut de surface et taille de grain en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles : approche expérimentale et numérique sur un fer pur Armco

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to study the influence of the ratio between the defect size and themicrostructure characteristic length on the fatigue limit (for a fixed fatigue life) of a metallic material, under highcycle fatigue (HCF). Pure Armco iron is chosen because its simple microstructure has a single characteristic lengthat the mesoscopic scale (grain scale) : the grain size. The aim of the study is thus to study the competition betweena structural effect (surface defect) and a material effect (grain size) in the context of mechanical stresses in HCF.In order to obtain a comparable different grain size, a thermomechanical protocol has been developed. HCF tests,using specimens from both microstructure sizes (initial material and processed hardened material) in which hemisphericaldefects of different sizes were introduced, were performed to estimate the fatigue limits for different defectsize / grain size ratios. When Kitagawa diagrams are presented in relative values (fatigue limit / fatigue limit ofdefect free material versus defect size / grain size), there is a single curve that combines the two microstructures.This dimensionless Kitagawa diagram thus makes it possible to analyze the reduction of the fatigue limit inducedby a defect. The use of the relative size of the defect with respect to the characteristic microstructural dimensionappears to be more relevant than the use of the physical size of the defect.These experimental results are used to reproduce the HCF tests with Finite Element simulations on 3D microstructuresrepresentative of Armco iron. The competition existing between the stress concentration induced by thegeometrical defect and the highly stressed regions of the microstructure generated by the anisotropy of the mechanicalbehavior of the grains is studied. A mesoscopic criterion (involving mechanical quantities averaged by grain)based on a statistical approach allows to find the evolution of the dimensionless Kitagawa diagram, ie the relativesize of the critical defect from which it predominates over the response heterogeneity of the microstructure and thusgoverns the fatigue behavior of the polycrystal. The modification of the mesoscopic criterion by taking into accountintragranular heterogeneities (with the standard deviation per grain of mechanical quantities) is discussed.
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Matthieu Vincent. Interaction entre défaut de surface et taille de grain en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles : approche expérimentale et numérique sur un fer pur Armco. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ESMA0018⟩. ⟨tel-02082516⟩

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