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Optical 3D imaging of subcellular dynamics in biological cultures and tissues : applications to ophthalmology and neuroscience

Abstract : This PhD project aims to explore the relationship that might exist between the dynamic motility and mechanical behavior of different biological systems and their biochemical activity. In particular,we were interested in detecting the electromechanical coupling that may happen in active neurons, and may assist in the propagation of the action potential. With this goal in mind, we have developed two highly sensitive optical microscopes that combine one modality that detects sub-wavelength axial displacements using optical phase imaging and another modality that uses a fluorescence path. Therefore, these multimodal microscopes can combine a motility, a mechanical,a structural and a biochemical contrast at the same time. One of this system is based ona multimodal combination of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) and allows the observation of such contrast inside thick and scattering biological tissues. The other setup provides a higher displacement sensitivity, but is limited to measurements in cell cultures. In this manuscript, we mainly discuss the development of both systems and describe the various contrastst hey can reveal. Finally, we have largely used our systems to investigate diverse functions of the eye and to look for electromechanical waves in cell cultures. The thorough description of both biological applications is also provided in the manuscript
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02079619
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 26, 2019 - 11:00:15 AM
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Olivier Thouvenin. Optical 3D imaging of subcellular dynamics in biological cultures and tissues : applications to ophthalmology and neuroscience. Physics [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC169⟩. ⟨tel-02079619⟩

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