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Les défauts d'attention dans la survenue de traumatismes non intentionnels

Abstract : Attention is a complex process that is required in almost all our daily activities. Beyond its natural fluctuation during the day, our level of attention is also influenced by a large range of factors that can diminish our level of alertness (e.g. medicines, alcohol use) or divert our attention (e.g. mobile phone, thoughts) thus exposing us to the occurrence of unintentional injuries. In road traffic safety, attention failures have been identified as a major cause of concern but questions remain unsolved. What about attentional failures in the occurrence of daily-life injuries ? The aim of this thesis was to explore the role of attention failures on the risk of unintentional injuries. The idea was to explore epidemiological issues that remained unresolved in road traffic injuries while extending the problematic to those lesser-known injuries that are Home and Leisure Injuries (HLIs). To that end, this thesis was divided in three parts. First, we investigated the association between medicine use and the risk of road traffic injuries among pedestrians. To do that, we used data on road traffic crashes collected by the French police forces matching with data on reimbursed medicine from the French Health insurance. In a second part, we were interested in several types of driving distractions on the risk of road traffic crashes using data from a sample of road users interviewed at the Bordeaux University Hospital. The third and final part was to study the role of attentional failures on the occurrence of HLIs and was based on data from a prospective and online cohort on HLIs. Attentional failures were studied from the perspective of mind-wandering as a trait measured through a questionnaire and also the implementation of three online neuropsychological tests. Several medicine classes, including benzodiazepines, were associated with an increased risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian. In the study on distracted driving, the higher risk was found for visual distraction. Finally, whereas neuropsychological test scores were not associated with a higher risk of HLI, mind-wandering trait was associated with a higher risk of sport, leisure and moving-related injuries. This work provides essential insights into issues that have remained unexplored to date. Beyond the drivers and road risk, our results indicate that attentional failures could also present a risk for pedestrians as well as for the occurrence of other everyday injuries. In years, to come, the share of attentional failures in the occurrence of injuries is expected to further increase, particularly due to the increasing use of new technologies in our daily live. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of these attentional failures in the occurrence of unintentional injuries is more than ever essential.
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Mélanie Nee. Les défauts d'attention dans la survenue de traumatismes non intentionnels. Psychologie et comportements. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0212⟩. ⟨tel-02079518⟩

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