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Structural arquitecture, sedimentary balance and hydrocarbon potential of a "wedgetop-foredeep" transition zone of retro-foreland basin : example of the Marañon and Huallaga basins of northern Peru

Abstract : This thesis, through its multidisciplinary approach and the interpretation of a large amount of industrial data, brings new elements in the understanding of foreland basin systems, especially in the Andino-Amazonian field of northern Peru. It proposes a new stratigraphic and structural model of this region, reconstructs and quantifies the history of the deformation and sedimentation that constitutes the key data to model the petroleum systems and to reduce the risks in exploration. The results show that the structural architecture of the Marañon Foreland Basin, the largest of the central Andes, evolves laterally from a wedgetop zone in the SE to a foredeep zone in the NW. In the SE, it forms a thrust wedge partly eroded, connected to the wedgetop basins of Huallaga and Moyabamba. This set constitutes a single foreland basin system, deformed by the interference of an east-verging thin-skinned tectonics and a largely west-verging tectonics. The total horizontal shortening varies between 70 and 76 km. The western vergence of this thick-skinned tectonics is controlled by the inheritance of the Gondwanide orogeny (Middle Permian). We show that it is at the origin of the important crustal and destructive earthquakes in the Moyabamba basin. The east-verging thin-skinned tectonics shows a strong shortening and is confined to the wedgetop basins of Huallaga and Moyabamba, where it is controlled by the geographical distribution of a large level of Late Permian evaporites sealing the structures of the Gondwanide orogenesis. Towards the NW, the deformation of the Marañon basin is progressively amortized, which is reflected in the transition to a foredeep type deposition zone. The deformation, although not very important, is still active and responsible for shallow earthquakes. From a sedimentary point of view, this thesis has made it possible to differentiate four foreland mega-sequences in the Marañon basin, defined from well stratigraphic correlations and regional discontinuities identified in seismic. A structural section through the Marañon-Huallaga system has been restored in three stages since the Middle Eocene to reconstruct and quantify the propagation of the foreland basin system. The four foreland mega-sequences and the sequential restoration show that the Marañon-Huallaga system developed since the Albian during two stages separated by an important period of erosion during the Middle Eocene. They recorded successively the uplifts of the western and eastern Cordilleras of the Andes of northern Peru, and that of the Arch of Fitzcarrald. From a quantitative point of view, the calculated sedimentation rates show a gradual increase since the Albian, interrupted by the erosion of the Middle Eocene. The 2D petroleum modeling, carried out from a revision of the petroleum systems and the sequential restoration of the Huallaga-Marañon system, valorizes a large part of the results obtained in this thesis by simulating the expulsion of the hydrocarbons at the different stages of the deformation of the Huallaga-Marañon system, and showing its potential trapping areas.
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Ysabel Calderón. Structural arquitecture, sedimentary balance and hydrocarbon potential of a "wedgetop-foredeep" transition zone of retro-foreland basin : example of the Marañon and Huallaga basins of northern Peru. Tectonics. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30038⟩. ⟨tel-02078737⟩



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