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Remedios Varo et Leonora Carrington en miroir : images croisées

Abstract : This PhD dissertation focuses on a literary and pictorial comparative analysis of European-born artists Remedios Varo (1908-1963) and Leonora Carrington (1917-2011) who, in the 1930s, participated in the Surrealist group in Paris and then went into exile in Mexico during World War II. The purpose of this study is to identify points of convergence and divergence in the creative process of these two artists. Equally important, this thesis will endeavor to enable a dialogue between their artworks and to examine their creative collaboration while focusing on the concept of images. The standpoint of this dissertation is at the same time comparative and multidisciplinary, for it is formulated at the junction of art history, literary analysis, pictorial analysis, and history.The notion of image, the conceptual contours of which are explained in the preamble 2 is to be understood in almost all of its significations – from pictorial and verbal image to mind-made image, in which oneiric image is to be included – and is seen as a conceptual intersection point par excellence.The first part of this study questions the construction of images or, using a metaphor borrowed from the alchemical language, the image laboratory. Chapter 1 introduces and theorizes the notion of surrealist image in order to reveal the ways in which both artists integrated into their works the surrealist state of mind, being an invitation to question the visible world, and went beyond it through the elaboration of “world models”, by analogy with specific alchemical and occultist processes. Chapter 2 not only considers exile as a historical and cultural context that gave way to profound mutual and dynamic influences, but also as a pivotal notion that enables to comprehend, in their productions, phenomena of reappropriation, hybridization, creative transfusion and transgression.The second part delves deeper into the comparison of images realized by both artists – an analysis that follows a dialectical pattern that combines the concepts of image-reflections and image-distortions. Chapter 3 analyzes female self-representations and is dedicated to reveal the way in which these representations challenge the images of the feminine as elaborated by male surrealist creators. Notions of transvestism and masquerade are examined and presented as inseparable from the quest to self-discovery.Finally, Chapter 4 pays attention to both artists’ “mirrors of relation” and “relation to mirrors”. On the one hand, this analysis addresses the creative friendship that unites both artists in their work, more specifically in their written expression, and the mechanisms of fictionalization pertaining to it. The mirror effects that are at play in the images of both artists who created fourhanded works and the pictorial motif of the mirror are also focused on in this research. Indeed, the mirror may be considered as an emblem of Remedios Varo’s and Leonora Carrington’s creative approach, not only as a specular tool but also and more importantly, as an object of symbolism and magic.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 25, 2019 - 10:50:10 AM
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Fanny Martinez. Remedios Varo et Leonora Carrington en miroir : images croisées. Littératures. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30043⟩. ⟨tel-02078249⟩



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