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Where Does the Stigma Lie? : Exploring the Roles of Gender, Religion and Caste in the Indian Labor Market

Abstract : This thesis aims to analyze how the stratified nature of a society translates into horizontal inequalities in the labor market. We analyze the case of urban India, where disparities among gender, religion and caste groups persist despite the country’s significant structural change. The first chapter analyzes the links between labor market exclusion and group disadvantage. After estimating the likelihood of non-participation in the labor market, we address the specific case of secluded labor by detecting its impact on children’s education. We suggest that female labor market participation is not likely to lower the educational gap for future generations. The second chapter compares the paths of labor market mobility between 2005 and 2011-12 among gender and socio-religious groups. A detailed analysis of occupational and earnings mobility, followed by the estimation of their determinants, suggest that the group-specific mobility patterns may not reflect a process of “catching-up.” The third chapter proposes an analysis of labor market segmentation in the context of a predominantly informal labor market, showing that the household business sector is relatively homogenous and that the salaried sector is segmented along gender lines. A fourth chapter highlights the issue of potential discrimination by comparing parametric and semi-parametric wage gap decompositions, both suggesting that wage gaps are mostly due to selection and segregation effects in the case of gender. In the case of socio-religious groups, a combination of endowment differentials, nepotism and potential discrimination leads to substantial wage differentials.
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Suneha Seetahul. Where Does the Stigma Lie? : Exploring the Roles of Gender, Religion and Caste in the Indian Labor Market. Economics and Finance. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0337⟩. ⟨tel-02076981⟩

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