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Écologie de l’abeille, Apis mellifera unicolor Latreille, dans les écosystèmes forestiers naturels de Ranomafana (Madagascar) et Mare Longue (Réunion) : étude du comportement de butinage et de l’utilisation des ressources florales par approche mélissopalynologique

Abstract : The natural forest ecosystems of the Southwest Indian Ocean (SOOI) have been strongly impacted by deforestation and face many biological invasions that are alter their balance, particularly plant-pollinator interactions. It is in this context that this thesis is set, describing the relations between an indigenous general pollinator: Apis mellifera unicolor and the flora of two ecosystems of Madagascar (Ranomafana: RA) and Reunion (Mare Longue: ML). The palynological description of 135 species from 52 families of melliferous plants from the RA formation, highlighted the specific criteria of pollens associated with entomophilous pollination. In a second time, monthly phenological monitoring of 131 species (90% native) to RA and 120 species (53% exotic) to ML allowed to identify and estimate the available floral resources. During one year, the monthly analysis of honeys and pollen collected enabled an inventory of the floral resources actually exploited. Native species were significantly more visited than exotic species, despite a diversity of exotic resources superior to that of the natives (ML). The foraging behaviour of the honeybee on the genus Weinmannia was analysed on the basis of 104 hours of video (W. bojeriana and W. rutenbergii in Madagascar, and W. tinctoria in Reunion Island). The flowers were visited by many potential pollinators: Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and other Hymenoptera. A. m. unicolor was the most frequent visitor to the two species from Madagascar. The results confirmed the generalist behaviour of A. m. unicolor, with, however, a strong and significant preference for native floral species of tree and shrub strata and makes it possible to speculate on the important place of this bee in the ecosystems of the SOOI biodiversity hotspot.
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Tsiory Mampionona Rasoloarijao. Écologie de l’abeille, Apis mellifera unicolor Latreille, dans les écosystèmes forestiers naturels de Ranomafana (Madagascar) et Mare Longue (Réunion) : étude du comportement de butinage et de l’utilisation des ressources florales par approche mélissopalynologique. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LARE0043⟩. ⟨tel-02076367⟩

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