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Theses

Détection à distance d’électroniques par l’intermodulation

Abstract : Electromagnetism, security and electronic warfare have been closely linked for decades. Their association gathers applications of radar surveillance, neutralization of electronic systems or detection of hidden electronics. Today, the multiplication of IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) both in theatres of operation and in urban environments leads to the need for their detection. The works of this thesis can enter into this theme and propose a new alternative that allows to highlight the presence of hidden RF receivers. The nonlinear radar is particularly suitable for detecting devices containing metals and (electronic) semiconductors. A popular technique is to transmit a single frequency f1 and receive the second harmonic generated by the target. Another less common technique consists of transmitting two frequencies, f1 and f2, and receiving intermodulation products of order 3 (2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1). An in-depth state of the art of nonlinear radar systems is made in a first chapter with a comparison of their characteristics. In a second chapter, an inductive test bench is developed to measure the reflected IM3 of an RF target. Thus analyses and orders of magnitude will be known helping the development of radar. In chapter 3, the IM3 radar demonstrator is developed. A wide range of RF systems, commercial and non-commercial, that may be found in operational environments are being tested. Their detection will validate the IM3 recovery technique. A new realistic IM3 radar link budget is implemented to estimate the actual radar detection range for different RF targets. In the last chapter the work focuses on the identification and classification of an RF target. The study focuses on the possibility of extracting all parameters to assist in a classification (hazard assessment) of RF receptors in an operational environment. The research work presented in this manuscript contributes to the improvement of hidden electronic detection techniques. A detection protocol was proposed describing the actions of the IM3 radar. It includes a frequency scan and then a power scan. The first tests were carried out on a walkie-talkie demonstrating the possibility of detecting its bandwidth via IM3 retransmission, at more than 2 m. The repeatability of the tests on an extended panel of RF receivers validates the detection protocol and the interest of the IM3 radar. An IM3 radar transmission power of 40 dBm, at an IM3 frequency of 400 MHz, can potentially detect a receiver at 80 m. Finally in a final exploratory work, we demonstrated that by observing the IM3 response reflected following a power scan the IM3 radar can add new identification criteria that discriminate the hidden receivers detected between them.
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Alexandre Martorell. Détection à distance d’électroniques par l’intermodulation. Electronique. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS019⟩. ⟨tel-02076357⟩

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