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Biomechanical study of cells in microfluidic flow : application to sorting and platelet production

Abstract : When they mature in the bone marrow, the precursors of platelets, called megakaryocytes, grow and extend protrusions able to join blood circulation. There these protrusions elongate and break into platelets. Microfluidic techniques for in vitro platelet production represent a promising alternative to donation. In order to enhance platelet production and match the needs of clinical applications such as transfusion, we need to better understand the fragmentation of megakaryocytes into platelets. Our contribution will be described in this manuscript in two main axes. First, in order to know if mechanical properties of megakaryocytes can indicate their maturity stage, we develop a cell sorting method based on deformability. The method is first validated with microcapsules. Their mechanical properties are determined by inverse analysis from their shape under flow in straight microchannels. Then the device is downscaled. The characterization of cell mechanical properties are performed using inverse analysis and tipless atomic force microscopy. Second, we study megakaryocyte elongation and rupture in a microfluidic device. We quantify the spatial and temporal variations of the elongation rate and develop a laser ablation protocol to trigger and study the rupture of elongating cells.
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Doriane Vesperini. Biomechanical study of cells in microfluidic flow : application to sorting and platelet production. Biomechanics [physics.med-ph]. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018COMP2437⟩. ⟨tel-02076338v2⟩

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