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Lutte biologique par conversation dans les vergers de pommiers : peut-on manipuler les communautés d'araignées pour augmenter leur efficacité contre certains ravageurs

Abstract : It is now crucial to develop new control tools to replace the use of pesticides. Biological control is one of this tool and we thus studied the possible roles of spiders as generalist predators in apple orchards. Three studies were carried out: the first one to determine which local factors (protection management and characteristics of the surroundings) govern spider communities (abundance, diversity) in apple orchards; the second to determine which spiders remain active in winter to control resting stages of some pests; and the last to assess the feasibility of a transfer and release of some spider species into an orchard. We first showed that organic and IPM orchards hosted very different spider community and that, in contrast, local characteristics (hedges and percentage of orchards in the vicinity) had only minor effects. We further demonstrated that some spiders were active winter-long in apple orchards in South-east of France with high abundances for some genus like Philodromus, Trachelas and Clubiona. Lastly we showed that transferring and releasing some spider species of interest (C. mildei and C. leucapsis) is possible and greatly increased the abundance of the released species for one year in the target orchard. We moreover observed a significantly negative relationship between C. mildei and codling moth abundance at the tree scale. These results proved that spider populations can be managed to increase their role in the biological control of important pests in pomefruit orchards.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 22, 2019 - 9:30:35 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02076311, version 1

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Sadeq Alzubik Belkair. Lutte biologique par conversation dans les vergers de pommiers : peut-on manipuler les communautés d'araignées pour augmenter leur efficacité contre certains ravageurs. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0348⟩. ⟨tel-02076311⟩

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