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Theses

LA LUTTE CONTRE LA POLLUTION MARINE EN FRANCE

Abstract : .The Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive ecosystem subject to strong pressures by human activities such as fishing, oil and gas exploration, dumping of wastes or other matter at sea, shipping, transfer of aquatic species invasive by ballast water and coastal tourism. The study of the protection of the marine environment in France can be justified in several respects. Second maritime zone of the world with more than 11 million km2, France is the only country present in three oceans. It also benefits from the second Exclusive Economic Zone in the world and a continental shelf twenty times greater than its national territory. France, both a maritime power and a coastal State, plays a key role in the fight against marine pollution. Hardly hit by the shipwrecks of Amoco Cadiz, Erika and Prestige, it has a strengthened penal framework for the suppression of pollution caused by ships and an Exclusive Economic Zone in the Mediterranean, which replaces the Ecological Protection Zone created in 2004. Our study invites a synthesis: it presents the preventive and repressive measures according to their sources of pollution, as well as the measures of repair. It focuses on the articulation of the rules of international law and the law of the European Union, emphasizing the difficulties of a harmonious coexistence between these rules. n the first part, the thesis distinguishes the measures of prevention of marine pollution according to the place or the mode of introduction of the pollutions: the pollution from telluric origin, coming from sources or from point or diffuse activities located on ground, is particularly intense in densely populated areas. This type of pollution creates the greatest risk for the coastline. On the other hand, the pollution caused by the ships is likely to cause considerable damage to the local area. It is noted that, despite a universal agreement on land-based pollution, the main management efforts have been initiated at the regional level. The role of the European Union is of paramount importance: it has ratified all regional conventions to prevent and reduce this type of pollution in the Mediterranean and has issued guidelines setting standards for water quality or targeting sectors of particular activities. At the national level, what characterizes the protection of the coastline is the abandonment of the sectoral approach in favor of a more global and coherent approach. The study also revives a debate on the desirability of creating a true autonomous American Coast Guard Corps. It presents the initiatives taken by the institutions of the European Union, the legal and practical difficulties of realizing this idea and highlights the transition from a European coastguard to a coast guard function. In the second part, the first title deals with the penal repression of the marine pollution according to the place or the mode of introduction of the pollutions, the pollution coming from the sea and the marine pollution of telluric origin. The repression of marine pollution coming from the sea revolves around three axes: a) The suppression of oil discharges at sea. The suppression of oil spills at sea questions both the international law of the sea, European law and national law. The problem that arises is that of the articulation between these different texts and, more particularly, that of the delicate coexistence of international conventions and European standards. Although the French repressive regime is based on the MARPOL Convention, which defines the illegal discharge of hydrocarbons to be incriminated, it is up to the national legislator to set the penalties applicable to the offenses. The analysis of the evolution of the legislation and its implementation by the national courts makes it possible to note the improvement of its effectiveness: the aggravation of the penalties and the specialization of the competent jurisdictions in case of pollution by discharges of the ships entails a better knowledge of the technical panorama related to illegal discharges. Despite the progress of the fight against oil spills at sea, the difficulties related to the establishment of the proof remain, in the absence of a constant jurisprudence. b) The repression of pollution caused by dumping operations. The international rules and norms in the field of immersion are limited to defining incriminations, without pronouncing penal sanctions; it is up to the national legislator to define the penalties for the offense of dumping waste. c) The suppression of pollution from exploitation and exploration of the seabed or its subsoil. The apparent increase in penalties for pollution perpetrators from exploitation and exploration of the seabed's mineral resources is part of a general movement that reflects the growing share of society's environmental concerns. The second title is dedicated to civil liability and damage compensation for marine pollution. Firstly, the focus has been on the transfer of the inter-state level compensation problem to the inter-individual level. An analysis of the general and special civil liability and compensation regimes follows. The European Directive on Environmental Liability has been analyzed separately, since it closely melds reparation for damage that has already occurred, typical of the objectives of the civil liability rule, with the prevention of harm. This analysis demonstrates how we have moved from a scattered European maritime policy to the adoption of an integrated maritime policy and is paving the way for the European Union to increase its role on the international scene. It also notes the need for the integration of the ecosystem approach in the conventions.
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Eirini Pantelodimou. LA LUTTE CONTRE LA POLLUTION MARINE EN FRANCE. Droit. Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-02074806⟩

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