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Développement d’un vaccin à ADN optimisé contre le virus de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift chez le mouton

Abstract : The Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus that mainly affect ruminants in Africa, resulting in economic burden. There is currently no treatment and only vaccine for veterinary use against the RVFV are available. The development of new and safer vaccine is urgently needed due to the risk of introduction of this arbovirus to other continents. In the present work, we developed an optimized DNA vaccination against RVFV using a plasmid encoding the ectodomain of surface glycoprotein Gn (eGn) of RVFV into the skin with plasmid adjuvant encoding GM-CSF and electroporation in sheep. We further optimized the DNA vaccination using dendritic cell targeting strategy with a plasmid encoding a single chain fragment variable (scFv) fused with eGn directed to two DC receptors, DEC205 and CD11c. The efficacy of the vaccines were tested in the sheep, the natural host and in the mouse model to investigate the mechanism of protection. In both models non-targeted eGn vaccine confer a better clinical protection and higher non-neutralizing antibody production than DC-targeted vaccine. However, in both models eGn targeting to DEC205 differentially affected the immune response and induced a partial protection after a challenge. We further demonstrated that non-neutralizing antibodies induced by native eGn protect mice by passive transfer. The mechanism mediated by these antibodies remains to be investigated. Overall, this work indicates the proof of concept that DNA vaccine can confer protection against the RVFV in the sheep.
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Tiphany Chrun. Développement d’un vaccin à ADN optimisé contre le virus de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift chez le mouton. Immunologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLA004⟩. ⟨tel-02074153⟩

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