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Impact des aménagements hydrauliques sur les systèmes fluviaux bas-normands depuis 2000 ans : approche géomorphologique et géoarchéologique

Axel Beauchamp 1
1 LETG - Caen - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique
LETG - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique UMR 6554
Abstract : In Lower Normandy, knowledge of the hydrosedimentary dynamics of rivers before and during the installation of the numerous hydraulic installations since the Roman period remains very fragmentary. Little was known about the rates of erosion and sedimentation that have occurred over the last two millennia and how climatic and anthropogenic controls have influenced these processes. Thus, the challenge of this phD is to understand and measure the role of the inherited structures and operating in the current functioning of the rivers of Lower Normandy in order to help with their contemporary management. To provide answers, geomorphological and geoarchaeological researches has been carried out in several valleys. These studies make it possible to highlight the weight of the hydraulic installations and in particular the developments related to the mills in the setting up of floodplains. Indeed, the complete structuring and management of the watercourse since the Middle Ages artificialized riverbed forms and slopes, and partitioned rivers favoring lateral stability and overflow sedimentation in the floodplain conducting in the development of completely regulated rivers. The installation of mills is accompanied locally by a simplification of the river course. At the acme of the equipment there was a mill every 2,500 meters along the rivers of Lower Normandy. These transformations mean that a large part of current courses are artificial. These structures and the increase of the overbank silt sedimentation for 1000 years are at the origin of the establishment of a dynamic equilibrium resulting in the hydrosedimentary forms of the present rivers which are largely inherited. The abandonment of the management of the hydraulic structures and their destruction during the last fifty years comes to question this balance.
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Axel Beauchamp. Impact des aménagements hydrauliques sur les systèmes fluviaux bas-normands depuis 2000 ans : approche géomorphologique et géoarchéologique. Géographie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC024⟩. ⟨tel-02073234⟩

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