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Mechanisms and consequences of alterations in vascular function in combined type 2 diabetes and sickle cell trait

Abstract : Rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are rapidly increasing worldwide, including in regions, and among populations, of the globe where sickle cell trait (SCT) is prevalent. SCT, the heterozygote form of sickle cell disease, is generally considered a benign condition. However, evidence shows that vascular function is more severely impaired in people with combined T2D and SCT (T2D-SCT) than in those with T2D only. Furthermore, evidence suggests that SCT could complicate screening for T2D, thereby increasing the risk of delayed diagnosis of T2D. In light of this information, the main objectives of this thesis were to study the challenges related to diagnosing and monitoring T2D in individuals with SCT, and to evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of the amplified vascular dysfunction observed in T2D-SCT. Study 1 compared the agreement between two standard measures of glycemia, HbA1c and fasting glucose, and one alternative measure of glycemia, fructosamine, in Senegalese adults with and without SCT. The findings revealed substantial disparities between the markers of glycemia, and these differences were exaggerated in individuals with SCT. Study 2 illustrated that SCT could potentially augment the risk of developing retinopathy, nephropathy, and hypertension in T2D, and demonstrated that AGEs are likely implicated in the vascular dysfunction observed in T2D-SCT. Studies 3 and 4 studied microvascular function in a mouse model of T2D-SCT. Study 3 showed that T2D-SCT mice had significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in-vivo. Study 4 revealed that ACH-mediated vasodilation in-vivo was significantly elevated in the microvasculature of mice with combined T2D and SCT due to cyclooxygenase-2 dependent mechanisms. Overall these findings deepen our understanding about the complexities related to diagnosing and managing T2D in individuals with SCT
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Sarah Skinner. Mechanisms and consequences of alterations in vascular function in combined type 2 diabetes and sickle cell trait. Tissues and Organs [q-bio.TO]. Université de Lyon, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1270⟩. ⟨tel-02071800⟩

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