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Microfinance et entrepreneuriat à Madagascar

Abstract : Developing countries, especially countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, are confronted with the need to reduce poverty while their populations are stillincreasing at high rates. Micro small and medium-sized enterprises hold the highest potential for job creation and income generation. However, lack of financing, among numerous other obstacles, significantly impedes their development.Microfinance institutions have played, and continue to play, a significant role in meeting the growing financing needs of MSEs excluded from the formal financial sector. In this dissertation, we attempt to illustrate some points to pay particular attention to in order to increase microfinance impacts. Firstly, we highlight that initial financial constraints may prevent entrepreneurs from investing in their first-choice sector and that ultimately, this misallocation of talent could be detrimental for growth. This result emphasizes the need for start-up financing, which is one of the riskiest and most critical aspects of running a business. Secondly, we draw attention on the fact that up-scaling strategies implemented by MFIs may lead to competition with banks. The net economic impact of up scaling strategies will depend on how much MFIs neglect the poorest clients (mission drift) and to what extent clients with the highest growth potential can in fact resort to commercial banks. Finally, we shed light on the fact that the lack of financial knowledge among entrepreneurs may actually skew their financing choices and ultimately prevent them from obtaining more affordable sources of financing.As a whole, MSEs need special attention to foster their growth and contribution to job creation. MFIs are a powerful tool to help MSEs meet growth objectives, but optimal development may require other forms of financial assistance and better suited funding.
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Pierrick Baraton. Microfinance et entrepreneuriat à Madagascar. Economies et finances. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAD006⟩. ⟨tel-02071475⟩

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