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Stigmatisation relative au poids, menace du stéréotype et comportement alimentaire des personnes en surcharge pondérale

Abstract : Excessive weight is a public health issue. In fact, obesity and overweight affect around 45% of the French population.Beyond genetics, hormonal and social economics factors, lifestyle (i.e., feeding, physical exercise, etc.) is often cited as a possible cause of the disease. However, if these initial factors find scientific supports, way of life, however, is hardly substantiated and would rather reflect a myth. Nevertheless, social psychology has demonstrated that the myth can sometimes become reality… Indeed, research on the stereotype threat phenomenon shows that members of social groups can be harmed by negative stereotypes. More precisely, even if they fear it, individuals can adopt behaviours consistent with these activated and applicable stereotypes. Therefore, the present work aimed to highlight the impact of weight stigma on the French overweight people’s eating behaviours. To this end, 633 overweight/obese people and 1278 normal-weight people took part in the six experiments (and five pre-tests) presented in this thesis. Firstly, we ensured that the French weight stigma exists and we explored its content. Secondly, we took an interest in obese people’s feelings and how they were dealing with the weight stigma in terms of real-life experiences, frequency, coping strategies, psychological well-being and healthy behaviours (e.g., feeding, physical activity, etc.). Thirdly, through the stereotype threat phenomenon, we examined the effects of this weight stigma on the eating intentions/behaviours for normal-weight and overweight people. First, the results showed the existence of weight stigma in France. Poor eating habits and physical inactivity are attributed mostly to overweight people. Then, we demonstrated that obese people’s weight stigma experiences and their coping strategies correlated with a low psychological well-being, a high level of impulsiveness and inappropriate eating behaviours. Finally, according to stereotype threat, we provided experimental evidence that weight stigma can lead overweight people to consume more high-calorie food in certain circumstances. These results will be discussed with regard to the stereotype threat literature, and particularly studies related to overweight people. Suggestions for further research and possible interventions to reduce or eliminate the harmful effects of stereotype threat resulting of weigh stigma will also be proposed
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Lisa Brelet. Stigmatisation relative au poids, menace du stéréotype et comportement alimentaire des personnes en surcharge pondérale. Psychologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAL012⟩. ⟨tel-02070841⟩

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