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La citoyenneté dégradée : recherches sur l'infamie à Rome de 312 avant J.-C. à 96 après J.-C.

Abstract : This work intends to propose a global and diachronic approach to infamy, from 312 BC to 96 AD, in order to decompartmentalize its study, and put it back in its sociocultural context. Infamy refers to the degradation which results from the fulfilment of some latent contempt by a representative of the city. To understand the functions and the forms of this formalization, we started from a prosopographic catalogue from which the three parts of our research are taken. During the degradation ceremonies, infamy was actualized case by case by a civic authority which gauges the citizen's value. These dishonour shows favoured the spread of the values of aristocracy and, by reminding its excellence, made it legitimate. From the 2nd century BC, infamy experienced a phenomenon of juridicisation : it stemmed now from the application of a legal rule affecting some groups of citizen. Finally, infamy affected all the citizens, was not contagious, and made its target a social outcast. It was rare to get through this. The stigmatisation reinforced the cohesion of the rest of the group and contributed to redefine his normative system. Infamy was not a unified legal concept, but it had a ideational unity. It affected the citizen who did not conform to the society functioning and who aroused distrust because he had broken his personal integrity. It replaced him in the civic hierarchy by institutionalizing a kind of anti-auctoritas. Rome was an order society, infamy always fell within a perspective of ordering citizens so as to organise their relationships between them and with the State.
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Clément Bur. La citoyenneté dégradée : recherches sur l'infamie à Rome de 312 avant J.-C. à 96 après J.-C.. Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA010718⟩. ⟨tel-02070606⟩

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