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ENERGY TRANSITION: DIFFICULTIES, IMPLICATIONS AND SOLUTIONS

Abstract : Using theoretical models, we are mainly interested in the penetration of renewable energies in the electricity market, by analyzing the various obstacles to their development and some measures taken to promote their expansion. Increasing the share of renewable energies in the energy mix has generated a vast literature. Our first chapter presents a review, highlighting the different methods used and the assumptions adopted. The introduction of renewable energy sources into the energy mix is a challenge for the electricity markets. In our analysis of the interaction between conventional and intermittent generators, we model this uncertainty as a random variable reflecting climatic conditions. The electricity sector has also attracted considerable attention in the debate on the climate change mitigation. In the second and third chapters, we examine how the introduction of an environmental tax and an emission allowance quota affect investments in renewable technologies. Our results show that the intermittency of renewable energies calls into question the standard properties of efficiency of the latter. Indeed, except to adjust ex post tax and quota to weather conditions, which seems technically and economically impossible, both instruments are unable to decentralize the optimal state. Under this constraint, we show that renewable energy capacities that should be installed under each scheme depends on assumption adopted on the demand-side. Another solution to facilitate the development of renewable energies would be to act on demand-side of the market. In the third chapter, we propose a model to determine and analyze investments in intermittent technologies and the installation of smart meters, in a social optimum. We find that renewable energy and smart meters can be substitutes or complements.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02069926
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Fadoua Chiba. ENERGY TRANSITION: DIFFICULTIES, IMPLICATIONS AND SOLUTIONS. Quantitative Finance [q-fin]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. English. ⟨tel-02069926⟩

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