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Rôle de la GTPase Rho RND1 dans la réponse cellulaire à la camptothécine, inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I

Abstract : Rho GTPase family comprises 20 members that regulate key cellular functions such as actin cytoskeleton organization and migration. Beside their canonical functions, certain Rho GTPases, including RhoB and Rac1, emerged as early DNA damage-inducible genes. Indeed, RhoB is readily induced in response to various genotoxic stress, including camptothecin (CPT), UV and cisplatin, and primarily protect cells against apoptotic cell death. Whether other Rho GTPases also respond early to genotoxics is largely unknown. In this project, we used camptothecin, a topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitor that selectively stabilized TOP1-DNA cleavage complexes (TOP1cc) onto chromatin, to screen for early DNA damage-inducible Rho GTPases. Besides RhoB, we identified RND1 as a gene rapidly induced by CPT. RND1 induction is reversible and closely associated with the presence of TOP1cc induced by CPT. Consistently, UV light and hydrogen peroxide, which indirectly stabilized TOP1cc, induce RND1 as well. CPT increases minimal promoter-independent RND1 transcription. Additionally, CPT increases poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP1) activity, whose inhibition prevents RND1 transcription. Overexpression of RND1 also increases PARP1 expression, suggesting a positive regulation between PARP1 and RND1 in response to TOP1cc. Thus, we propose that in response to CPT, TOP1cc activate PARP1, which in turn promotes RND1 transcription resulting in a positive feedback loop. Finally, we found that RND1 protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis and leads to resistance to CPT. Together, these results highlight RND1 as a new Rho GTPase involved in the response to stress and propose a new mechanism for TOP1cc-induced gene transcription through PARP1 activation. These findings further suggest that inhibiting RND1 signaling could sensitize tumor cells to CPT derivatives.
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Laetitia Mouly. Rôle de la GTPase Rho RND1 dans la réponse cellulaire à la camptothécine, inhibiteur de la topoisomérase I. Pharmacologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30030⟩. ⟨tel-02069644⟩

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