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Perfectionnement d'un algorithme adaptatif d'optimisation par essaim particulaire : application en génie médical et en électronique

Abstract : Metaheuristics are a new family of stochastic algorithms which aim at solving difficult optimization problems. Used to solve various applicative problems, these methods have the advantage to be generally efficient on a large amount of problems. Among the metaheuristics, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a new class of algorithms proposed to solve continuous optimization problems. PSO algorithms are inspired from the social behavior of animals living in swarm, such as bird flocks or fish schools. The particles of the swarm use a direct way of communication in order to build a solution to the considered problem, based on their collective experience. Known for their e ciency, metaheuristics show the drawback of comprising too many parameters to be tuned. Such a drawback may rebu some users. Indeed, according to the values given to the parameters of the algorithm, its performance uctuates. So, it is important, for each problem, to nd the parameter set which gives the best performance of the algorithm. However, such a problem is complex and time consuming, especially for novice users. To avoid the user to tune the parameters, numerous researches have been done to propose adaptive algorithms. For such algorithms, the values of the parameters are changed according to the results previously found during the optimization process. TRIBES is an adaptive mono-objective parameter-free PSO algorithm, which was proposed by Maurice Clerc. TRIBES acts as a black box , for which the user has only the problem and the stopping criterion to de ne. The rst objective of this PhD is to make a global study of the behavior of TRIBES under several conditions, in order to determine the strengths and drawbacks of this adaptive algorithm. In order to improve TRIBES, two new strategies are added. First, a regular initialization process is defined in order to insure an exploration as wide as possible of the search space, since the beginning of the optimization process. A new strategy of displacement, based on an hybridation with an estimation of distribution algorithm, is also introduced to maintain the diversity in the swarm all along the process. The increasing need for multiobjective methods leads the researchers to adapt their methods to the multiobjective case. The di culty of such an operation is that, in most cases, the objectives are con icting. We designed MO-TRIBES, which is a multiobjective version of TRIBES. Finally, our algorithms are applied to thresholding segmentation of medical images and to the design of electronic components
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Yann Cooren. Perfectionnement d'un algorithme adaptatif d'optimisation par essaim particulaire : application en génie médical et en électronique. Algorithme et structure de données [cs.DS]. Université Paris-Est, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008PEST0035⟩. ⟨tel-02069238⟩

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